I found over 20 lists of the greatest philosophers and combined them into a single metal list. The results are below: each philosopher in three or more of the original source lists, presented in chronological order by date of birth. While most lists focused heavily on Western philosophy of various kinds, I was also able to find lists of Eastern philosophers and a few lists containing both Eastern and Western philosophy. I have provided important philosophical schools, ideas and concepts for each philosopher, as well as a list of important books and articles.
NOTE: These are not my personal opinions. The list is the result of grouping multiple lists made by other people.
To see the same list sorted by rank (i.e., with philosophers at the top of most lists), go toHere.
Zoroaster(Zarathustra) (Persia/Iran, ca. 1200-900 – 1133-833 BC) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Zoroastrianism. manikaism. Mithraism. Ahmadia. fight betweenaschaanddruj. Mazda-Yasna-Ethic.
It works out:Gathas. Avesta.
Zoroaster (with globe) in detail from Raphael's School of Athens (1509).
Thales of Miletus(Ancient Greece, ca. 624-546 BC) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Empiricism. Naturalism. Monism. Water as an ark (universal substance and primal principle of nature). Thales' theorem. intercept set. Use of deductive reasoning in geometry.
Works: Discussed by Herodotus and Aristotle.Lives of Important Philosophers(von Diogenes Laertius) (ca. 250 AD).
This marble bust of Thales of Miletus, made during the Roman Empire, is now in the Capitoline Museums in Rome.
Lao Zi(Laotse) (China, c. 600-531 BC) (in 8 Listen)
Known for: Taoism
It works out:Tao Te Ching(Daodejing) (zugeschrieben) (ca. 624-604 v. Chr.).
Laozi Song Dynasty stone carvings at the foot of Qingyuan Mountain (960-1279).
You have(If, ca. 600-500 BC (?)) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Hinduism. Vaisheshika school. Atomism. Realism. Six Padārthas: dravya (substance), guna (quality), karman (movement), samanya (universal), visesa (particular), and samavaya (inherence).
It works out:Vaisheshka-Sutra (Kanada-Sutras).
The imagination of an artist from Canada.
Mahavira(Vardhamana) (If, 599/497–527/425 BC) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Jainism. The teaching of nonviolence applies to all living beings. Anekantavada (multiple reality). Syadvada (all judgments are conditional). Nayavada. Five vows: Ahimsa (do not hurt); satya (true); asteya (not steal); brahmacharya (chastity); Aparigraha (detachment).
It works out:Jain Agamas(Attribute.)Samavayanga-Sutra. Acharanga-Sutra.
A statue of Mahavira. It may have come from a 16th-century Jain temple in the Dilwara temple complex on Mount Abu in Rajasthan, India.
Pythagoras(Ancient Greece, ca. 570-495 BC) (in 4 lists)
Known for: Pythagoreanism. communalism. Metempsychosis. universal music. Pythagorean theorem (attribution). Sphericity of the earth (attrib.). Five regular bodies (attrib.). Theory of proportions (attrib.).
It works out:Lives and opinions of important philosophers(von Diogenes Laertius) (ca. 250 AD).
Bust of Pythagoras from the Musei Capitolini, Rome. Roman marble copy of a 5th century BC Greek bronze original.
the Buddha(Siddhartha Gautama) (Indian, ca. 563/480–483/400 v. Chr.) (in 5 Listen)
Known For: Buddhism. The Middle Way. Dhyana. impermanence. dependent origin. Liberating vision.
It works out:Sutta Pitkata(attribute) (includingKhuddaka Nikaya/Dhammapada) (29 v. Chr.).
Sandstone sculpture of Buddha Preaching the Law (Dharmacakra mudrā) from the Gupta period (AD 240-590). It is located in the Sarnath Archaeological Museum in Sarnath, India.
Confucius(China, 551-479 v. Chr.) (in 12 Listen)
Known for: Confucianism. The golden rule.
It works out:The Analects(attributed) (ca. 475-221 BC).
A conception of Confucius by Wu Daozi (c. 680-760 AD) during the Tang Dynasty.
Heraclitus(Ancient Greece, 535-475 BC) (in 7 lists)
Known for: Unity of opposites. logos. The ascending-descending way. "Everything flows." "Character is destiny." "Conflict is justice."
It works out:In the nature(quoted inLives of Important Philosophers, von Diogenes Laertius, c. 250 EG).
An unknown artist's 17th century conception of Heraclitus.
Parmenides(Ancient Greece, born c. 515 BC) (in 8 lists)
Known For: Eliatic School. Rationalism. “Thinking and being are the same.” Nothing comes from nothing. The emptiness. The impossibility of change. The unchanging nature of existence.
It works out:In the nature(ca. 5ºcentury BC).
This bust of Parmenides, possibly from the 1st century AD, was discovered in 1962 at the archaeological site of Velia, Italy.
Zeno of Elea(Ancient Greece, ca. 490-430 BC) (in 5 lists)
Known For: Eleatic School. Zeno's paradoxes. Dialectic. Absurd cut announcement.
It works out:Parmenides(by Plato) (ca. 380 BC).Physically(by Aristotle) (c. 335 BC).Lives and opinions of important philosophers(von Diogenes Laertius) (ca. 250 AD).
An undated engraving of a bust of Zeno by Elea.
Socrates(Ancient Greece, ca. 470-399 BC) (in 14 lists)
Known for: Rationalism. Persistent critical reflection. Socratic method. "All I know is that I don't know anything."
It works out:forgiveness(by Plato, ca. 399-390 BC).Plato's Socratic Dialogues(ca. 399-367 v. Chr.).
This marble bust of Socrates in the Louvre in Paris is probably a 1st century AD Roman marble copy of a Greek bronze original from Lysippus.
Evil(Mo Tzu) (China, ca. 470-391 BC) (in 6 lists)
Known For: Mohism. impartial care. Enlightened self-interest. consequentialism.
It works out:Evil(attributed) (ca. 476-221 BC).
A drawing by Mozi.
Democritus(Ancient Greece, 460-360 BC) (in 4 lists)
Known For: Atomism. Causality. Materialism. Atomic Void. "Equality everywhere is noble." Legitimate knowledge versus bastard knowledge.
It works out:Lives and opinions of important philosophers(von Diogenes Laertius) (ca. 250 AD).Sourcebook in Ancient Philosophy(Charles Montague Bakewell, Hrsg.) (1907).
Housed in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, this marble bust of Democritus is attributed to an unknown 18th-century Italian artist.
Sun Tzu(Sunzi) (Sun Wu (?)) (China, c. 544-496 v. Chr. (traditionally), c. 450-380 v. Chr. (?)) (in 5 Listen)
Known For: Military theory. Know when to fight and when not to. Time is of the essence. Know yourself and your enemy. "All war is based on deception." The best victories come by means other than war. "In the midst of chaos there is opportunity." Success breeds success. A prolonged war does nations no good.
It works out:The Art of War(Attribute) (c. 500-450 BC (older version); c. 400-300 BC (Revisions and additions from Sun Bin(?))
A statue of Sun Tzu in Yurihama, Tottori, Japan.
Plato(Ancient Greece, 428-348 BC) (in 19 lists)
Known for: Idealism. platonism. theory of forms. The Allegory of the Cave. The Philosopher King. Founded the Academy (385 BC).
It works out:forgiveness(ca. 399-390 v. Chr.).Crito(ca. 399-390 v. Chr.).Not less(ca. 388-367 v. Chr.).Phaedo(ca. 388-367 v. Chr.).Symposium(ca. 388-367 v. Chr.).To the republic(ca. 388-367 v. Chr.).
Bust of Plato in Centrale Montemartini, Vatican City. Roman copy of a Greek original from Silanion from 428 BC.
Diogenes the Cynic(Ancient Greece, ca. 412-323 BC) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Cynicism. It is solved by walking. "Cosmopolitan." praise dogs.
It works out:Lives and opinions of important philosophers(von Diogenes Laertius) (ca. 250 AD).
Diogenes Seated in His Bathtub is an 1860 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme. It is now in the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland.
Aristotle(Ancient Greece, 384-322 BC) (in 19 lists)
Known for: Realism. Founded the Lyceum (335 BC). The Golden middle. The Four Causes. Democracy.
Works (all written around 335-323 BC):Nicomachean Ethics.Poetic.Physically.Politics.rhetoric.Metaphysics. In the soul.
Bust of Aristotle in the National Museum of Rome. Roman marble copy of the Greek bronze original from Lysippos from 330 BC.
Epicurus(Ancient Greece, 341-270 BC) (in 8 lists)
Known for: Epicureanism. Atomism. Materialism. Hedonism. pleasure principle. Atomic Deviation.
It works out:In the nature(fragments only) (late 4th centºearly 5th centuryºcentury BC).cards(quoted inLives of Important Philosophers, von Diogenes Laertius, c. 250 EG).
This marble bust of Epicurus is a 2nd or 3rd century BC Roman copy of a Greek original. It is now in the British Museum in London.
Mencius(China, 372-289 v. Chr.) (in 6 Listen)
Known for: Confucianism. innate goodness.
Works: The Book of Mencius (ca. 309-289 BC).
A posthumous portrait of Mencius.
Zhuang Zhou(Zhuangzi) (China, ca. 369-286 v. Chr.) (in 4 Listen)
Known for: Taoism (Taoism). "The Butterfly Dream." "The Death of Wonton." "The Debate on the Joy of Fish." "Play drums and sing in the bathtub."
It works out:O Buch von Zhuangzi(ca. 306-286 v. Chr.).
The imagination of an artist from Zhuang Zhou.
Chanakya(Kauṭilya; Vishnugupta) (Indian, ca. 350–275 v. Chr.) (in 3 Listen)
Known For: Political Science. Business. Four necessary fields of knowledge: (1) the Vedas, the Anvikshaki (philosophy of Samkhya, Yoga and Lokayata); (3) political science; (4) Economy (varta of agriculture, livestock and trade). Raja-Rishi (wise king).
It works out:Arthasastra(Attribute).Chanakya Niti(Attribute.)
The imagination of a Chanakya artist.
Zeno of Citium(Zeno the Stoic) (Ancient Greece, ca. 334-262 BC) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Stoicism. Three branches of philosophy: physics, ethics, logic. rationality of human nature. virtue ethics. global citizenship. Happiness arises when right reason coincides with universal reason (Logos).
It works out:Zeno's Republic(lost).Lives and opinions of important philosophers(von Diogenes Laertius) (ca. 250 AD).
A marble bust of Zeno by Zitium in the Capitoline Museums in Rome.
Xun Kuang(Xunzi) (China, ca. 313–238 v. Chr.) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Confucianism. Human nature is inherently evil and corrected by ethical norms. The path changes over time. Gentleman king (junzi) supported by a class of scholars (ru).
It works out:O Xunzi.
An Artist's Fantasy by Xun Kuang.
Han Fei(Han Feizi) (China, ca. 280-233 v. Chr.) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Legalism. Human nature is driven by self-interest. The government must guide the citizens out of self-interest, using rewards and punishments. Possession of authority brings the right to obedience. Rulers must not rule arbitrarily, but must enact laws that all must obey. The ruler must use the art of governing (shu) in order to govern. Governments have to adapt to people's changing circumstances.
It works out:O Han Feizi(atrib.).
An undated portrait of Han Fei.
Patanjali(India, ca. 200 BC-300 AD) (in 4 lists)
Known through: Hinduism. So install Samadhi. Sadhana. Vibhuti. Kaivalya. These are the components of Yoga (Yamas, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi).
It works out:The Yoga Sutras(atrib.) (antes of AD 400).
A modern sculpture by Patanjali at Patanjali Yogpeeth in Haridwar, India.
Cicero(Marcus Tullius Cicero) (Roman Republic, 106-43 BC) (of 3 lists)
Known for: Stoicism. eclecticism. peripatetics.
It works out:De Oratore (On the Orator)(55 aC).De Re Publica (On the Commonwealth)(51 aC).Stoic paradoxes(46 aC).On the Nature of the Gods(45 ac).Disputes of Tuscany(45 ac).Within the limits of good and evil(45 ac).on duties(44 ac).About the laws.
This marble bust of Cicero from the 1st century B.C. is in the Capitoline Museums in Rome.
Lucrez(Titus Lucretius Carus) (Roman Republic, ca. 99-55 BC) (of 3 lists)
Known for: Epicureanism. Atomism.
It works out:De Rerum Natura (On the Nature of Things)(ca. 55 v. Chr.).
An engraving showing a marble bust of Lucretius.
Seneca the Younger(Lucius Annaeus Seneca) (Römisches Reich, ca. 4 v. Chr. – 65 n. Chr.) (in 4 Listen)
Known for: Stoicism.
It works out:De Ira (On Fury)(41 EG).in the shortness of life(49 EG).De Constantia Sapientis (On the Firmness of the Wise)(55 EG).De Vita Beata (On the Happy Life)(58 EG).De otio (at leisure)(62 EG).In the stillness of mind(63 EG).natural problems(63 EG).in providence(64 EG).Moral Letters(approx. 65 EG).
This Roman marble bust of Seneca, one side of a double herm of Socrates and Seneca, dates from the first half of the 3rd century AD. It is now in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.
Marcus Aurelius(Roman Empire, 121-180 AD) (in 7 lists)
Known for: Stoicism.
It works out:meditations(180 EG).
This ancient Roman marble bust of Marcus Aurelius is located in the Archaeological Museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
Nagarjuna(If, c. AD 150–250) (in 4 Listen)
Known for: Mahayana Buddhism. Madhyamaka school. Prajñāpāramitāsutras. Sunyata (empty). Doctrine of Two Truths. Causality. Relativity.
It works out:Mūlamadhyamakakārikā (atrib). Śūnyatāsaptati (Seventy Verses on Emptiness). Vigrahavyāvartanī (The End of Quarrels). Vaidalyaprakaraṇa (pulturing of the categories). Vyavahārasiddhi (Proof of Convention).
This 17th-century statue of Nagarjuna by Tibetan artist Tsapa Namjyal is now in the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland.
Sixth Empirical(Roman Empire, ca. 160-210 AD) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Pyrrhonism. Skepticism. empirical school.
It works out:Sketches of Pyrrhonism. against the mathematicians(two versions).
This marble bust has been identified by some as Sextus Empiricus and by others as the ancient Greek playwright Euripides.
Plotinus(Egypt/Roman Empire, ca. 204-270 AD) (in 7 lists)
Known for: Neoplatonism. Emanations of the One: Nous, soul of the world, human souls, matter. Three hypostases: the one, the intellect and the soul. Henosis (union with the One).
It works out:The Enneads(ca. 270 n. Chr.).
One of four marble heads believed to be Plotinus found at Ostia Antica, Italy.
Vasubandhu(If, c. 300-400 AD) (in 3 Listen)
Known For: Buddhism. Mahayana Buddhism. Yogacara. Only semblance (vijñapti-mātra). Sautrantica. Kṣanikavāda. Deposit consciousness (ālayavijñāna). logical epistemology.
It works out:Abhidharmakośakārikā (Commentary on the Treasury of the Abhidharma). Vimśatikāvijñaptimātratāsiddhi (Twenty Verses for Representation Only). Triṃśikā-vijñaptimātratā (thirty verses for representation only). Trisvabhāvanirdeśa (Exhibit of the Three Natures). A Method of Reasoning (Vada-vihi).
An undated drawing by Vasubandhu.
Hypatia of Alexandria(Egypt/Roman Empire, ca. 350/370-415 AD) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Neoplatonism.
It works out:Commentary on the Arithmetic of Diophantus.
A still from the 2009 historical drama Agora, a film directed by Alejandro Amenabar. Actress Rachel Weisz plays Hypatia of Alexandria in the film.
Augustine von Hippo(Algeria/Roman Empire, 354-430 AD) (in 14 lists)
Known for: Christian theology. divine grace. Original sin. Only theory of war.
It works out:confessions(ca. 397-400 n. Chr.).about the Christian doctrine(397-426 dC).the city of god(426 EG).
This portrait of Saint Augustine by Peter Paul Rubens from 1636-1638 is now in the National Gallery in Prague.
Boethius(Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius) (Italy, ca. 480-524 AD) (von 4 Listen)
Known for: Neoplatonism. The Wheel of Fortune.
It works out:of arithmetic(ca. 500 n. Chr.)About the institution of music(ca. 510 n. Chr.).The consolation of philosophy(ca. 524).about thematic differences(ca. 522-523 EG).of the trinity(ca. 520-521 n. Chr.).As substances.
Boethius' cover illustration of a 12th-century copy of his book De Institutione Musica. The manuscript is in the Cambridge University Library.
Adi Shankara(Adi Shankaracharya) Indie, c. 788–820 AD. BC) (in 5 Listen)
Known for: Hinduism. Dashanami Sampradaya. Advaita Vedanta. Unity of Atman and Nirguna Brahman.
It works out:Brahmasutrabhasya (Kommentar zu den Brahma Sutras). Bhagavadgītabhasya (Kommentar zur Bhagavad Gita). Upadesasahasri.
An Artist's Fantasy by Adi Shankara.
Al-Farabi(Afghanistan/Persia/Egypt/Iraq/Syria (?), ca. 872-950 AD) (in 4 lists)
Known for: Farabism (Alpharabism). Neo-Aristotelianism. Neoplatonism. Future Odds. Conditional syllogisms. Analog Inference.
It works out:Kitāb al-mūsīqa (The Big Book of Music). Al-Madīna al-Fāḍila (Principles of the Opinions of the Citizens of the Virtuous City). Kitāb iḥṣāʾ al-ʿulūm (On the Introduction of Knowledge). Kitāb iḥṣāʾ al-īqā'āt (Classification of Rhythms). "In a vacuum." social psychology. Commentary and short treatise on Aristotle's De Interpretatione.
An artist's introduction to Al-Farabi.
Avicenna(Ibn Sina) (Persia, 980-1037 AD) (in 9 lists)
Known for: Neoplatonism. avinicism. proof of truth. Floating Man thought experiment.
It works out:at–Hikma al– ‘Arudia(Philosophy for the prosodist).The Canon of Medicine(1025).Kitābal-shifā (The Book of Healing; The Healing)(1020).Kitābal-Najāt (The Book of Liberation; The Book of Redemption)(11ºCentury).The Book of Knowledge for 'Ala al-Dawla.Notes and Warnings.
An artistic representation of Ibn Sina, also known as Avicenna.
Ramanuja(India, c. 1017–1137) (in 5 lists)
Known for: Hinduism. Sri Vaishnavism. Vishishtadvaita Vedanta. Qualified Monism.
It works out:Shri Bhashya. Vedārthasangraha. Bhagavad Gita Bhashya.
An artist's introduction to Ramanuja.
Anselm von Canterbury(Anselm of Aosta) (France/England, around 1033-1109) (in 6 lists)
Known For: Scholastica. Christian theology. ontological argument. Theory of Atonement Satisfaction.
It works out:Monologue(1075-1076).the past tense(1077-1078).Why was God human(1095-1098).
A late 16th century engraving by Anselm of Canterbury.
Al-Ghazali(Persia, 1058-1111) (in 5 lists)
Known For: Ash'ari Islam. sufism. Theological Occidentalism.
It works out:error release(an 1100).goals of the philosophers. The Incoherence of Philosophers (Tahāfut al-Falāsifa). Criterion of Knowledge in the Art of Logic. touchstone of logical thinking. The right balance. The Rebirth of Religious Studies (The Alchemy of Happiness).
The imagination of an artist from Al-Ghazali.
Peter Abaelard(France, 1079-1142) (in 4 lists)
Known For: Scholastica. Conceptualism.
It works out:Peter Abayard's glosses on porphyry(an 1120).Logic for beginners(before 1121).dialect(before 1125).Logic in response to the request of our comrades(ca. 1124-1125).A treatise on understanding(before 1128).Sic et Non (yes and no). Theology of the "Highest Good" Christian Theology(ca. 1120-1140).“student” theology(ca. 1120-1140).Dialogue of a philosopher with a Jew and a Christian(1136-1139). EthicaorScito Te Ipsum (Ethik oder Erkenne dich selbst)(before 1140).
A stone statue of Peter Abelard by Jules Cavelier, made before 1853, now hangs in the Louvre in Paris.
averroes(Ibn Rushd) (Spain/Morocco, 1126-1198) (in 7 List)
Known for: Aristotelianism. Malik. The reconciliation of Aristotelianism with Islam.
It works out:The inconsistency of the inconsistency(1180).Comments on Aristotle(numerous).About the intellect About the syllogism About the connection with the active intellect In time. About the heavenly sphere. About the movement of the sphere.
Florentine artist Andrea di Bonaiuto da Firenze's fantasy of Averroes detailed in his fresco Triumph of Saint Thomas Aquinas, 1365-1368, in the church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence, Italy.
Zhu Xi(China, 1130–1200) (in 4 Listen)
Known for: Confucianism. Neo-Confucianism. Vitality (Qi). principle (left). The supreme supreme (Taiji). The investigation of things. heart/mind. knowledge/action.
It works out:Commentary on the four books(ca. 1180-1200).Master Zhu's Classified Dialogues(Zhuzi Yulei).Daxue (great learning).The Collected Writings of Zhu Xi(Zhuzi Wenji). Reflections on the things at hand(you dismount).
An Artist's Fantasy by Zhu Xi.
improve(Japan, 1133–1212) (in 3 Listen)
Known For: Buddhism. Jōdo-shū (Pure Land Buddhism). Membutsu. Shichikajō-kishōmon (Promise of the Seven Articles).
It works out:Senchaku Hongan Nembutsushū(1198).a sheet of document(1212).
A 12th-century portrait of Honen by Fujiwqara Takanobu.
Maimonides(Moses ben Maimon) (Spain/Egypt, 1135-1204) (in 4 lists)
Known For: Judaism. Jewish scholasticism. negative theology. True beliefs versus necessary beliefs.
It works out:Commentary on the Mishnah(1168).Guide for the Desperate(ca. 1186-1190).Treatise on Logic(atrib.).
In 1985, Paraguay issued a postage stamp bearing the image of Maimonides.
Shinran(Japan, 1173–1261) (in 3 Listen)
Known For: Buddhism. Jōdo Shinshū (Pure Land School of Buddhism). Primacy of belief over practice. Shinjitsu no Shinjin (true belief).
It works out:Kyogyoshinsho(1224).
This 15-foot bronze statue of Shinran stood in front of a Buddhist temple in Hiroshima, Japan, in 1945 when the atomic bomb was dropped on that city. The statue was transplanted to New York City in 1955 and now stands across from the New York Buddhist Temple on Riverside Drive.
Dogen(Dōgen Zenji) (Japan, 1200–1253) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Zen Buddhism. Sotoschool. Buddha nature (Busshō). Time being (Uji). Perfect Expression (Dōtoku). zazen Shikantaza. Unity of practice enlightenment.
It works out:Bendōwa (A Lecture on Striving the Path)(1231).Shōbōgenzō (Eihei Kōroku)(1231-1253).Eihei Shingi..
A portrait of Doge.
Nichiren(Japan, 1222–1282) (in 4 Listen)
Known for: Nichiren Buddhism. mahayana Tent. Nam Myōhō Renge Kyōchanting. The five reproductive guides. The three great secret dharmas. The three exams.
It works out:On Establishing a Correct Teaching for Peace on Earth (Rissho Ankoku Ron)(ca. 1258-1260). TOpening the Eyes (Kaimoku-sho)(1272).The Object of Devotion to Observation of Mind (Kanjin-no Honzon-sho)(1273).The Selection of Time (Senji-sho)(1275).About Paying Gratitude Debts (Ho'on-sho)(1276).
This 14th or 15th-century Nichiren painting is housed in a Buddhist temple in Kuon-ji, Japan.
Thomas Aquinas(Thomas Aquinas) (Italy, 1225-1274) (in 16 lists)
Known For: Scholastica. Thomism. metaphysical intellectualism. Medieval realism. Almighty paradoxical. five ways analogy of being.
It works out:Summa against the pagans(ca. 1259-1265).Theological Summary(1265-1274).About Being and Essence.
Thomas Aquinas depicted by Gentile da Fabriano in a 14th-century painting now in the Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan.
Madhvacharya(Purna Prajña; Ananda Teertha) (Indian, 1238–1317) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Hinduism. Dwaita Vedanta. Dualism (distinction between Atman and Brahman). Three Pramāna (right means of knowledge): (1) Pratyaksha (perception); (2) anumāna (conclusion); (3) śabda (subject instruction). Kevala-pramana. Two types of tattvas (realities): (1) svatantra tattva (independent reality; (2) asvatantra tattva (dependent reality) Atat tvam asi (You are not that) established Udupi Sri Krishna Matha.
It works out:Sarvamula Granthas(including theAnuvyakhyana).
The imagination of a Madhvacharya artist.
Duns Scotus(John Duns) (Scotland, 1266-1308) (in 5 lists)
Known For: Scholastica. Theological volunteer work. Medieval realism. clarity of being. Hecceity as a principle of individuation. Immaculate Conception of Mary.
It works out:Questions about Aristotle's Metaphysics(ca. 1298-1300).Organisation (Opus Oxford)(ca. 1300-1304).reading(ca. 1300-1304).A report from Paris(ca. 1302-1307).any question(ca. 1306-1307).Scotus noted in the Metaphysics. Treatise on the First Principle.
This late 15th-century portrait of Duns Scotus by Justus van Gent is now in the Palazzo Barberini in Rome.
William of Ockham(England, 1285-1347) (in 5 Listen)
Known For: Scholastica. Theological volunteer work. fideism. conceptualism/nominalism. Occam's Razor.
It works out:Commentary on the judgments of Peter Lombard(1317-1318).Brief summary of natural philosophy(1319-1321).sum of logic(a 1323).Brief summary of physics(1322-1323).Aristotle's Physics Exhibition(1322-1324).Questions about Aristotle's physics books(before 1324).
An artist's introduction to William of Ockham in stained glass in a church in Surrey, England.
Erasmus(Desiderius Erasmus Rotterdam) (Netherlands, 1466-1536) (in 3 lists)
Known For: Humanism. Through the media. free will. against reforms.
It works out:A Christian Knight's Handbook(1503).praise of madness(1511).Copy: Basics of Abundant Style(1512).Julius expelled from heaven(1514).Silence Alcibiades(1515).Education of a Christian prince(1516).Free Arbitration Diatribe Sive Collatio (Freedom of Will)(1524).Declaration of the Apostles Creed(1533).
This 1524 portrait of Erasmus by Hans Holbein the Younger is now in the National Gallery in London.
Niccolo Machiavelli(Italy, 1469-1527) (in 10 lists)
Known for: Renaissance humanism. political realism. Classic republicanism.
It works out:The Art of War(1519-1520).Discourses on Livy(1531).The prince(1532).
This posthumous portrait of Niccolò Machiavelli by Santi di Tito from 1550-1603 is now in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Italy.
Wang Yangming(China, 1472–1529) (in 4 Listen)
Known for: Neo-Confucianism. school of thought. innate knowledge. unity of knowledge and action.
It works out:Instructions for practical life. recording of the speeches. Investigating the Great Learning.
A von Wang Yangming painting.
Thomas But(England, 1478-1535) (in 3 Listen)
Known For: Humanism. Roman Catholicism. Utilitarianism. Euthanasia.
It works out:Utopia(1516).The Answer to Luther(1523).A dialogue about heresies(1530).The refutation of Tyndale's answer(1532-1533).forgiveness(1533).
This 1527 portrait of Sir Thomas More by Hans Holbein the Younger is now in the Frick Collection in New York.
Franz Speck(The Viscount St. Alban) (England, 1561-1626) (in 11 Listen)
Known for: Empiricism. The scientific method. inductive reasoning.
It works out:essay(1sted., 1597).The promotion and empowerment of divine and human learning(1605).essay(2nded., 1612).A new scientific body(1620).New Atlantis(1627).
A 1617 portrait of Francis Bacon by Frans Pourbus.
Thomas Hobbes(England, 1588-1679) (in 17 Listen)
Known for: Materialism. Empiricism. social contract theory. Classic realism. Determinism. ethical selfishness. Life in the state of nature is "uncomfortable, brutal and short".
It works out:The third section of the elements of philosophy about the citizen(1642).Leviathan(1651).from the body(1655).Gigante(1668, Pub. 1681).
A 17th-century portrait of Thomas Hobbes by John Michael Wright. It is in the National Portrait Gallery in London.
René Descartes(France, 1596-1650) (in 18 lists)
Known for: Cartesianism. Rationalism. "Cogito ergo sum." Cartesian dualism. Mathematical Method. normal method. Cartesian coordinate system. Fundamentalism. dream argument. preservation of the moment. wax argument.
It works out:The world(1629-1633, Pub. 1662, 1664).discourse on method(1637).Geometry(1637).Meditations on First Philosophy(1641).principles of philosophy(1644).passions of the soul(1649).
This late 17th-century copy of René Descartes' portrait by Franz Hals, dated 1649, is in the Louvre in Paris.
Bleave Pascal(France, 1623-1662) (in 6 lists)
Known for: Jansenism. Pascal's triangle. Pascal's identity.
It works out: "of the geometric mind“ (1657/1658).The Provincial Letters(1656-1657).Thoughts(1669).
A copy of the portrait of François II Quesnel by Blaise Pascal c. 1691. It is now in the Palace of Versailles in France.
John Locke(England/GB, 1632-1704) (in 17 Listen)
Known for: Empiricism. Liberalism. social contract theory. law of nature. Blank page. Primary/Secondary Qualities. Rights to life, liberty and property.
It works out:Two government contracts(1689).An essay on the human mind(1689).Letters on Tolerance(1689-1692).Some reflections on education(1693).About the execution of the agreement(1706).
This 1697 portrait of John Locke by Sir Godfrey Kneller is now in the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg.
Baruch Spinoza(Benedict de Spinoza) (Holland, 1632-1677) (in 16 Listen)
Known for: Spinozism. Rationalism. neutral monism. social contract theory. Pantheism. Determinism. Parallelism. separation of state and church.
It works out:A short treatise on God, man and their welfare(a 1660).About improving understanding(1662).The principles of Cartesian philosophy(1663).A theological and political treatise(1670).ethics(1674, Pub. 1677).
A portrait of Baruch Spinoza from 1665.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz(Germany, 1646-1716) (in 13 lists)
Known for: Rationalism. monads. philosophical optimism. "The best of all possible worlds." "Why is there something rather than nothing?" symbolic logic.
It works out:metaphysical speech(1686).New essays on the human mind(1704).Theodizee(1710).Monadologie(1714).
A portrait of Gottfried Leibniz by Christoph Bernhard Francke from the 1720s.
George Berkeley(Bishop Berkeley) (Irland/GB, 1685-1753) (in 10 Listen)
Known for: Empiricism. Subjective idealism. Skepticism.
It works out:An essay for a new theory of vision(1709).A treatise on the principles of human knowledge(1710).Three dialogues between Hylas and Philonous(1713).Sanddorn(1732).there Analyst(1734).
This portrait of George Berkeley by John Smibert from c. 1730 is now in the National Portrait Gallery in London.
montesquieu(Charles-Louis de Secondat, Barão de La Brède and Montesquieu) (Frankreich, 1689-1755) (in 5 Listen)
Known For: Enlightenment. Liberalism. separation of powers.
It works out:persian letters(1721).True story(ca. 1723-1738).The Spirit of Laws(1748).
Engraving without dates by Montesquieu.
Voltaire(François-Marie Arouet) (France/Switzerland, 1694-1778) (in 9 lists)
Known For: Deism. freedom of religion. Free expression. separation of state and church.
It works out:Letters about the English nation(1734).Elements of Newtonian philosophy(1745).Zadig(1747).Essays on the customs and spirit of peoples(1756).Open(1759).
This 1724-1725 portrait of Voltaire by Nicolas de Largillière is now in the Palace of Versailles, France.
David Hume(Britain: Scotland, 1711-1776) (in 17 lists)
Known for: Empiricism. Skepticism.
It works out:A treatise on human nature(1738-1740).An inquiry into the human mind(1748).An Inquiry into the Principles of Morality(1751).Dialogues on Natural Religion(1779).
David Hume's 1754 portrait by Allan Ramsay is in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau(Switzerland/France, 1712-1778) (in 16 lists)
Known for: Social contract theory. Romance. General Will. child centered learning. popular sovereignty. positive freedom. Amour de soi/amour-propre.
It works out:Discourse on the Arts and Sciences(1750).The Social Contract(1762).Emilio or On Education(1762).the confessions(1781).
A portrait of Jean-Jacques Rousseau by Maurice Quentin de la Tour between 1750 and 1775. Located in the Antoine Lécuyer Museum in Saint Germaine, France.
Denis Diderot(France, 1713-1784) (in 5 lists)
Known for: Materialism. encyclopedist. Lighting. Experimental Science.
It works out:philosophical thoughts(1746).The path of the skeptic(1747).Letter to the blind(1749).About the interpretation of nature(1754).encyclopedia(1751-1765).Rameau's nephew(1763).Alembert's dream(1769).Jacques der Fatalist(1773).The actor's paradox(1770-1778).
This 1767 portrait of Denis Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo is now in the Louvre in Paris.
Immanuel Kant(Germany, 1724-1804) (in 18 lists)
Known for: Idealism. Synthesis of rationalism and skepticism. deontological ethics. The categorical imperative. social contract theory.
It works out:Critique of Pure Reason(1781).Prolegomena to any future metaphysics(1783).Foundations of the metaphysics of morality(1785).Critique of practical reason(1788).assessment of the verdict(1789).
An 18th-century portrait of Immanuel Kant by an unknown artist.
Thomas Paine(GB/France/USA, 1737-1809) (in 4 lists)
Known For: Enlightenment. Liberalism. republicanism.
It works out:Common sense(1776).the American crisis(1776-1783).The rights of man(1791-1792).the age of reason(1793-1794).Agrarian Justice(1797).
This c. The 1792 portrait of Thomas Paine by Laurent Dabos is now in the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.
Jeremy Bentham(GB, 1748-1832) (in 9 Listen)
Known For: Utilitarianism. legal positivism. Liberalism. principle of greatest happiness.
It works out:A fragment about the government(1776).An introduction to the principles of morality and legislation(1780).defense of usury(1787).anarchic errors(1796).
This portrait of Jeremy Bentham by Henry William Pickersgill from c. 1829 is now in the National Portrait Gallery in London.
Mary Wollstonecraft(GB, 1759-1797) (in 5 Listen)
Known for: Women's rights. Coeducation.
It works out:Reflections on the upbringing of daughters(1787).A defense of men's rights(1790).A claim for women's rights(1792).
John Opie's portrait of Mary Wollstonecraft from around 1797 is now in the National Portrait Gallery in London.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte(Germany, 1762-1814) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Idealism. Romance. Post-Kantian transcendental idealism. Nationalism. Absolute Consciousness. Mutual Recognition. The principle of mutual determination. The primacy of the practical. Original unit (primal drive). Thesis-antithesis-synthesis. Self-awareness as a social phenomenon.
It works out:An attempted critique of all revelation(1792).The vocation of the scholar(1794.Foundations of science of knowledge(1794-1795).Foundations of natural law(1797).Fundamentals of Transcendental Philosophy(1796-1799).The vocation of man(1800).The science of knowledge(1804).About the nature of the scholar(1806).Speeches to the German nation(1808).
An engraving by Johann Gottlieb Fichte by Johann Friedrich Jugel after a Fichte portrait by Heinrich Anton Dähling from 1808.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel(Germany, 1770-1831) (in 13 lists)
Known for: Idealism. Romance. natural philosophy. Historicism. Dialectical Phenomenology.
It works out:phenomenology of the Spirit(1807).science of logic(1812-1816).elements of legal philosophy(1821).Lectures on the philosophy of history(1837).
This 1831 Hegel portrait by Jakob Schlesinger is in the Alte Nationalgalerie in Berlin.
Friedrich Schelling(Germany, 1775-1854) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Idealism. Romance. natural philosophy. "Absolute Idealism." Philosophy of Identity. positive philosophy. "Unconscious Infinity."
It works out: "New derivation from natural law“ (1797).Ideas for a natural philosophy(1797).No world soul(1798).system of transcendental idealism(1800). „Presentation of my system of philosophy“ (1801).Philosophical investigations into the nature of human freedom(1809).Introduction to the philosophy of mythology(1856).Philosophy is mythology(1857).philosophy of revelation(1858).
This portrait of Friedrich Schelling by Joseph Karl Stieler from 1835 now hangs in the Neue Pinakothek in Munich.
Arthur Schopenhauer(Germany, 1788-1860) (in 12 lists)
Known for: Idealism. anthropic principle. philosophical pessimism. Transcendental idealism. Metaphysical Volunteering. antinatalism. Eternal Justice. The Hedgehog Dilemma. Principium individuationis. will as a thing in itself.
It works out:On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason(1813).The World as Will and Representation(Bd. 1: 1819; Bd. 2: 1844).The art of being right(1831).About the will in nature(1836).About free will(1839).based on morality(1840).Parerg and Paralipomena(1851).
A photograph of Arthur Schopenhauer from 1859 by Johann Schäfer.
August Comte(Isidor Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte) (France, 1798-1857) (in 7 lists)
Known For: Positivism. praxeology. religion of mankind. Law of the three stages. Altruism.
It works out:The general separation of opinions and desires(1819).Plan of the scientific studies necessary for the reorganization of society(1822).The Positive Philosophy course(1830-1842).An overview of positivism(1848).Positive political system(1851-1854).The Subjective Synthesis, Vol. 1(1856).
An undated photograph/drawing by August Comte. Hulton Archives/Getty Images
John Stuart Mill(United Kingdom, 1806–1873) (in 14 lists)
Known for: Empiricism. Utilitarianism. Classic Liberalism. Hierarchy of Pleasures. damage principle. Direct Reference Theory. Mills methods.
It works out:A system of logic(1843).Essays on some unresolved questions in political economy(1844).The principles of political economy(1848).A few words about non-interference(1859).In freedom(1859).Thoughts on representative government(1861).Utilitarianism(1863).The subjugation of women(1869).Three Essays on Religion(1874).
A photograph of John Stuart Mill taken at the London Stereoscopic Company c. 1870
Soren Kierkegaard(Denmark, 1813-1855) (in 12 lists)
Known for: Existentialism. Christian theology. torment knight of faith. memory and repetition. Three steps on the path of life. Subjectivity is true.
It works out:Or(1843).fear and tremors(1843).The concept of fear(1844).Completion of unscientific postscripts on philosophical fragments(1846).disease to death(1849).
An unfinished 1840 sketch by Søren Kierkegaard by his cousin Niels Christian Kierkegaard.
Karl Marx(Germany/Britain, 1818-1883) (in 15 lists)
Known for: Marxism. Communism. Materialism. Added value. class struggle. labor theory of value. Alienation and exploitation of work. materialistic view of history.
It works out:The Communist Manifesto(with Friedrich Engels) (1848).Capital city(A Capital) (1867-1883).
This photo of Karl Marx, taken around 1875, is now in the International Institute for Social History in Amsterdam.
Herbert Spencer(UK, 1820-1903) (in 3 lists)
Known For: Positivism. Classic Liberalism. social darwinism. laissez faire. Utilitarianism. "Survival of the Fittest." School of Synthetic Philosophy.
It works out: "About the sphere of government“ (1842).The social statics, or essential conditions of human happiness, were specified, and the first of these evolved(1851). „The philosophy of style“ (1852). „Progress: Its Law and Cause“ (1857).First principles of a new system of philosophy(1862).principles of biology(1864).The man against the state(1884).The principles of ethics(1879-1897).
An undated photo of Herbert Spencer.
Charles Sanders Peirce(USA, 1839-1914) (in 6 Listen)
Known for: Pragmatism. Abductive thinking. Continuity. tychism. synechism. fallibilism. Scholastic Realism. Objective idealism. Logic precedes metaphysics. Logic as formal semiotics. The four disabilities.
It works out: "For the natural classification of arguments“ (1867). „In a new category list“ (1867). „On the logic of mathematics„(1867)“.Through logical understanding and expanding“ (1867). „Nominalism vs Realism“ (1868). „Questions about specific abilities claimed for humans“ (1868). „Some Consequences of Four Disabilities“ (1868). „What does "definitely" mean?'" (1868) "Foundations of the Validity of the Laws of Logic: Other Consequences of Four Impairments“ (1869).Logic of Relatives(1970). „The Fixation of Faith“ (1877). „How we make our ideas clear“ (1878). „The Lesson of Opportunity“ (1878). „The induction probability“ (1878). „The order of nature“ (1878). „Deduction, induction and hypothesis“ (1878).The architecture of theories(1891).The Doctrine of Tested Necessity(1892).For you from Mind(1892).what is pragmatism(1905).Questions of pragmatism(1905).
An undated photo of Charles Sanders Peirce.
William James(USA, 1842-1910) (in 11 Listen)
Known for: Pragmatism. functional psychology. radical empiricism. Will-to-believe doctrine. James Lange Emotion Theory.
It works out: "What is an emotion?“ (1884).The principles of psychology(1890).the will to believe(1897).The diversity of religious experiences(1902).pragmatism(1907).Essays on radical empiricism(1912).
A 1903 photograph of William James taken at Notman Studios.
Friedrich Nietzsche(Germany, 1844-1900) (in 17 lists)
Known for: Idealism. Existentialism. Metaphysical Volunteering. will to power. superman. Anarchism. Apollonian/Dionysian. Resentment. "God is dead." herd instinct. Master-slave morals. revaluation. Nietzsche statement.
It works out:Birth of a tragedy(1872).Human, all too human(1878).The gay science(1882).Thus spoke zarathustra(1883).Beyond Good and Evil(1886).On the Genealogy of Morality(1887).Dawn of the Idols(1888).the antichrist(1888).see the man(1888).
A photograph of Friedrich Nietzsche around 1875, taken by F. Hartmann.
Thank God Frege(Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege) (Germany, 1848-1925) (in 6 lists)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. logical objectivism. Logic. Transcendental idealism. Realism. Axiomatic logic of predicates. Quantified Variables. principle of compositionality. context principle.
It works out:wording of the term(1879).The basics of arithmetic(1884). „About meaning and reference“ (1892). „concept and object“ (1892). „What is a function?“ (1904). „the thought“ (1918-1919). „refusal“ (1918-1919).
A photo by Gottlob Frege c. 1879
Sigmund Freud(Austria, 1856-1939) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Psychoanalysis. free association. Transfer. Oedipus complex. It, ego and superego. Repression. Unconsciously. seduction theory. Oral, anal and phallic stages.
It works out:Studies in Hysteria(with Josef Breuer) (1895).The Interpretation of Dreams(1899).The psychopathology of everyday life(1901).Jokes and their relation to the unconscious(1905).Three essays on the theory of sexuality(1905).totem and taboo(1913). „The history of the psychoanalytic movement“ (1914). „sadness and melancholy“ (1917). „Beyond the basics of enjoyment“ (1920).Group psychology and ego analysis(1921).You are the ego and you are the it(1923).The future of an illusion(1927).civilization and its dissatisfaction(1930).Moses and monotheism(1937).
A photo of Sigmund Freud around 1900.
Edmund Husserl(Austria/Germany, 1859-1938) (in 11 lists)
Known For: Phenomenology. logical objectivism. Epoch. Eidetic reduction. living environment. Pre-reflective self-awareness. Transcendental Subjectivism.
It works out:logical researches(1900).Ideas of a pure phenomenology and a phenomenological philosophy(1stBuch, 1913).Cartesian Meditations(1931).The Crisis of the European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology(1936).
A photograph of Edmund Husserl c. 1900
John Dewey(USA, 1859-1952) (in 9 Listen)
Known for: Pragmatism. reflective thinking. Immediate empiricism. pedagogical progressivism. work psychosis.
It works out: "The reflex arc concept in psychology“ (1896).school and society(1899).democracy and education(1916).human nature and behavior(1922).experience and nature(1925).The public and their problems(1927).Art as experience(1934).Logic: The theory of inquiry(1938).freedom and culture(1939).knowledge and the known(mit Arthur Bentley) (1949).
An undated photo of John Dewey.
Henri Bergson(France, 1859-1941) (in 5 lists)
Known For: Spiritism. Immediate Experience. Intuition. duration theory. philosophy of life. Élan vital.Nobel Prize in Literature (1927).
It works out:time and free will(1889).matter and memory(1896).Laughter: an essay on the meaning of comics(1900).Kreative Evolution(1907).
A photo by Henri Bergson from 1927.
Alfred North Whitehead(UK/US, 1861-1947) (in 5 Listen)
Known for: Process philosophy. process theology. Extensive abstraction. Error of inappropriate concreteness. Hold.
It works out:A treatise on universal algebra(1898).Principia Mathematica(with Bertrand Russell) (1910-1913).An introduction to mathematics(1911).An inquiry into the principles of natural knowledge(1919).The concept of nature(1920).process and reality(1929).
An undated photo by Alfred North Whitehead.
Jörg Santayana(Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás) (Spanish/USA/Italian, 1863-1952) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Pragmatism. Naturalism. epiphenomenalism. Materialism. Skepticism. natural nobility.
It works out:The sense of beauty(1896).The Life of Reason: The Stages of Human Progress(1905-1906).skepticism and animal belief(1923).The Realms of Being(1942).
An undated photo of George Santayana.
Sun Yat-sen(Sun Wen; Sun Deming) (China, 1866–1925) (in 3 Listen)
Known For: Three People's Principles (Nationalism, Democracy, Welfare).
It works out:The Outline of National Reconstruction(1918).The Foundations of National Reconstruction(1924).The principle of nationalism(1953).
An undated color photograph by Sun Yat-sen.
Mohandas K. Gandhi(Mahatma Gandhi) (When, 1869-1948) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Nonviolent civil disobedience (ahisma). Satyagraha. Brahmacharya. Swaraj (self-government). Sarvodaya.
It works out:Hind Swaraj, Indian self-government(1909).The story of my experiences with the truth(1925-1928).
A 1946 photograph of Gandhi with his spinning wheel by Margaret Bourke-White
Nishida Kitaro(Japan, 1870–1945) (in 3 Listen)
Known For: Kyoto School. Concrete non-dualistic logic (Basho's logic). Nothing absolute.
It works out:An investigation of the good(1911).thinking and experiencing(1915).Intuition and reflection in self-knowledge(1913-1917).The problem of conscience(1918-1919).art and morals(1920-1923). (1923–27).From acting to seeing(1923-1927).The system of universals in self-knowledge(1928-1929).Self-awareness and the determination of nothingness(1930-1932).Basic problems of philosophy (world of acts)(1933).Continuation of the fundamental problems of philosophy (world as dialectics)(1934). „The logic of the place of nothingness and the religious worldview“ (1945).
An undated photo of Nishida Kitaro.
Bertrand Russel(United Kingdom, 1872–1970) (in 12 lists)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. Linguistic turn. Logic. Utilitarianism. Descriptivist theory of names. Epistemic structural realism. Nobel Prize in Literature (1950).
It works out: "By designation“ (1905).The problems of philosophy(1912).Principia Mathematica(mit Alfred North Whitehead) (1910-1913).Why am I not a Christian?(1927).A question of meaning and truth(1940).A History of Western Philosophy(1945).Logic and Knowledge: Essays 1901-1950(1956).
A 1935 photograph by Bertrand Russell of Granger.
GE moura(George Edward Moore) (Britain, 1873-1958) (in 6 lists)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. Common sense. moral intuition. naturalistic error. paradox of analysis. transparency of conscience. Moore's paradox. Principle of organic unity.
It works out: "The nature of judgment“ (1899). „The Refutation of Idealism“ (1903).ethical principles(1903). „The nature and reality of perceptual objects“ (1905-1906).ethics(1912). „Some Perceptual Assessments“ (1918). „Are the properties of things general or particular?“ (1923). „A defense of common sense“ (1925).Philosophical Articles(Including "evidence of an outside world“ (1959).
An undated photo of G.E. Moore.
Ramana Maharshi(If, 1879–1950) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Hinduism. Advaita Vedanta. Self-enquiry (vichara). Bhaki (devotion). I eat sat-chit-anada (being-consciousness-bliss).
Works: Nān Yār? (Who Am I?) (1902, pub. 1923). Five Hymns to Arunachala (1914). Forty Verses on Reality (1928). Five Verses About Being (1947).
An undated photo by Ramana Maharshi.
Ludwig Wittgenstein(Austria/Great Britain, 1889-1951) (in 14 lists)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. Linguistic turn. Logical Atomism. image theory of language. real functions. logical necessity. philosophy of the common language. Ideal language analysis.
It works out:Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus(1921).Philosophical Investigations(1953).The blue and brown books(1958).
A 1947 photograph of Ludwig Wittgenstein by Ben Richards.
Martin Heidegger(Germany, 1889-1976) (in 12 lists)
Known For: Phenomenology. Existentialism. ontological hermeneutics. To be there.
It works out:Being And Time(1927).Introduction to Metaphysics(1935, published 1953).contributions to philosophy(1936-1938, Pub. 1989).
An undated photograph by Martin Heidegger.
Rudolph Karnap(Germany/USA, 1891-1970) (in 5 lists)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. Logical Atomism. Logical positivism. physicalism. confirmationism. observation set. Carnap's categorization. "Every complete system of axioms is also categorical." Epistemic structural realism. Ramsay phrases.
It works out:The logical structure of the world(1928).The logical syntax of the language(1934).Philosophy and logical syntax(1935).Introduction to Semantics(1942). „In inductor Logic“ (1945). „The two concepts of probability“ (1945)."On the Application of Inductive Logic“ (1947).purpose and necessity(1947). „Empiricism, Semantics, Ontology“ (1950).The continuum of inductive methods(1952).Philosophical foundations of physics(1966).
An undated photo by Rudolf Carnap.
Mao Zedong(China, 1893–1976) (in 4 Listen)
Known for: Maoism. Marxism. New Democracy. people's war. dough line. Three Worlds Theory. agrarian socialism.
It works out:Strategic problems of the Chinese War of Independence(1936).It's guerrilla warfare(1937).In practice(1937).in contradiction(1937).In the long war(1938).About the New Democracy(1940).dialectical materialism(1940).serve the people(1944).Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong(1964).
A photo of Mao Zedong from 1939.
Hans-Georg Gadamer(Germany, 1900-2002) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Ontological Hermeneutics. Hermeneutic Phenomenology. practical philosophy. "All products of a tradition are within this tradition." Merging of horizons. Language is the unity of the infinite and the finite. Consciousness is historically influenced.
It works out:truth and method(1960).The Idea of the Good in Plato-Aristotelian Philosophy(1978).Reason in the Age of Science(1981).Dialogue and Dialectics: Eight Hermeneutical Studies on Plato(1934-1974, Pub. 1983).The Enigma of Health: The Art of Healing in the Scientific Age(1993).
An undated photograph by Hans-Georg Gadamer.
Karl Popper(Austria/New Zealand/Great Britain, 1902-1994) (in 7 lists)
Known for: Critical Rationalism. Realism. Liberalism. empirical falsification. cosmological pluralism. Objective hermeneutics. Negative Utilitarianism.
It works out:The logic of scientific discovery(1934).The poverty of historicism(1944).The open society and its enemies(1945).conjectures and refutations(1963).objective knowledge(1972).The I and your brain(with John Eccles) (1977).
A 11990 photograph by Karl Popper.
Theodor W. Adorno(Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund) (Germany, 1903-1969) (in 5 lists)
Known For: Critical Theory. Western Marxism. paradox of aesthetics. maturity. negative dialectics.
It works out:Dialectic of Enlightenment(with Max Horkheimer) (1944).philosophy of new music(1949).The authoritarian personality(1950).minimale Moral(1951).Against epistemology(1956).negative dialectics(1966).aesthetic theory(1970).
An undated photograph by Theodor Adorno.
Jeaun Paul Sartre(France, 1905-1980) (in 15 lists)
Known for: Existentialism. Marxism. Phenomenology. hermeneutics. Humanism. bad faith. "Existence precedes essence." Ego transcendence. Nobel Prize in Literature (1964).
It works out:The transcendence of the ego(1937).nausea(1938).Draft theory of emotions(1939).the imagined(1940).be and nothing(1943).No escape(1944).ways to freedom(Trilogy, 1945-1949).Existentialism is a humanism(1946).Look for a method (1957).Critique of Dialectical Reason(1960).
An undated photo of Jean-Paul Sartre.
Ain Rand(Russia/USA, 1905-1982) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Objectivism. Rational/ethical selfishness. Laissez-faire capitalism.
It works out:we the living(1936).Hino(1938).Ost(1943).Atlas shrugged(1957).For the new intellectual(1961).The virtue of egoism(1964).Capitalism: the unknown ideal(1966).Introduction to objectivist epistemology(1979).Philosophy: who needs it(1982).
An undated photo of Ayn Rand.
Hannah Arendt(Germany/USA, 1906-1975) (in 9 lists)
Known for: Existential Phenomenology. Classic republicanism. The banality of evil.
It works out:The origins of totalitarianism(1951).the human condition(1958).Eichmann in Jerusalem: An Account of the Banality of Evil(1963).in the revolution(1963).men in dark times(1968).about violence(1970).the life of the spirit(1978).
An undated photo of Hannah Arendt.
Simone de Beauvoir(France, 1908-1986) (in 12 lists)
Known for: Existentialism. Existential Phenomenology. Marxism. Feminism.
It works out:The ethics of ambiguity(1947).the second sex(1949).the age of majority(1970).
A 1946 photograph of Simon de Beauvoir by Henri Cartier-Bresson.
Willard Van Orman Quine(USA, 1908-2000) (in 8 Listen)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. vagueness of translation. Naturalized epistemology. ontological relativity. Quine-Putnam's indispensability thesis.
It works out: "about what is there“ (1948). „Two dogmas of empiricism“ (1951).From a logical point of view(1953).word and object(1960). „Naturalized epistemology“ (1969).The roots of the reference(1971).
An undated photo of Willard Van Orman Quine.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty(France, 1908-1961) (in 4 lists)
Known For: Phenomenology. Western Marxism. Structuralism. poststructuralism. Anonymous collectivity. Motor intentionality. The flesh of the world. "The perceiving mind is the incarnate mind." Invagination.
It works out:The structure of behavior(1942).phenomenology of perception(1945).humanism and terror(1947).meaning and meaningless(1948).awareness and language acquisition(1949-1940).praise of philosophy(1953).phenomenology and study of man(1958).signals(1960).The visible and the invisible(1964).
An undated photo by Maurice Merleau-Ponty.
Claude Lévi-Strauss(France, 1908-2009) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Structuralism. Structural Anthropology. Culinary Triangle. DIY. My theme. alliance theory.
It works out:The elementary structures of kinship(1949).sad tropes(1955).Structural Anthropology(1958).The wild spirit(1962).mythologies(1964-1971).myth and meaning(1978).
An undated photograph by Claude Lévi-Strauss.
Simone Weil(France, 1909-1943) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Modern Platonism. From Creation. The need for roots. Compassionate Patriotism. Unjust character of suffering. Metaxu. methodical thinking. Attention. Reading.
It works out: "Science and Perception in Descartes„(1929-1930).“capital and the worker“ (1932). „Perspectives: Are we moving towards the proletarian revolution?“ (1933). „Reflections on technology, Nazism, USSR and some other matters” (1933) “Reflections on the causes of freedom and social oppression“ (1934). „Let's Not Start Another Trojan War" ("The Power of Words")(1936). „The Iliad or the Poem of Strength“ (1940). „The Pythagorean theorem“ (1941). „Essay on the concept of reading“ (1941). „Reflections on the right use of school instruction in relation to the love of God“ (1942). „The person and the sacred“ („human personality“) (1942–1943). „Draft People's Declaration of Commitment“ (1943).The need for roots(1943, published 1949).gravity and grace(1947).philosophy lectures(published 1978).
A photograph by Simone Weil from c. 1921
Albert Camus(Algeria/France, 1913-1960) (in 6 lists)
Known for: Existentialism. Absurdism. Anarchism. Nobel Prize in Literature (1957).
It works out:The funny one(1942).The Myth of Sisyphus(1942).Die Pest(1947).The rebel(1951).
An undated photograph by Albert Camus.
Donald Davidson(USA, 1917-2003) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. radical interpretation. Anomalous Monism. Truth Constrained Semantics. principle of charity. reasons as causes. understanding as translation. Rejection of the third dogma of empiricism.
It works out: "Actions, reasons and causes“ (1963). „truth and meaning“ (1967). „causal relationships“ (1967). „By saying that“ (1968). „The customization of events“ (1969). „true to the facts“ (1969). „mental events“ (1970). „How is weak will possible?“ (1970). „Agency“ (1971). „radical interpretation“ (1973). „About the idea of a conceptual scheme“ (1974). „think and talk“ (1975). „The Method of Truth in Metaphysics“ (1977). „to intend“ (1978). „What do metaphors mean?“ (1978). „Preis“ (1979). „rational animals“ (1982). „A theory of the coherence of truth and knowledge“ (1983). „First person authority“ (1984). „Action adverbs“ (1985). „A good disorder of epitaphs“ (1986). „Get to know your mind“ (1987). „Three Kinds of Knowledge“ (1991). „Laws and Cause“ (1995).Tests for actions and events(2001).truth and statement(2005).
A 1990 photo of Donald Davidson by Steve Pyke.
JEWEL. Anscombe(Elizabeth Anscombe) United Kingdom, 1919-2001) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. raw facts. "Below a description." Setting direction. consequentialism.
It works out:Intention(1957). „modern moral philosophy“ (1958).causality and determination(1971). „the first person“ (1975).Times, beginnings and causes(1975).From Parmenides to Wittgenstein(1981).Metaphysics and Philosophy of Mind(1981).ethics, religion and politics(1981).Human life, action and ethics(Ed. 2005).
An undated photo by G.E.M. anscombe
John Rawls(USA, 1921-2002) (in 6 Listen)
Known for: Liberalism. justice as fairness. The original location. Reflective Balance. Overlapping consensus.
It works out:A theory of justice(1971).political liberalism(1993).the international law(1999).
An undated photo by John Rawls, first published in the Harvard Gazette.
Jürgen Habermas(Germany, 1921- ) (in 6 lists)
Known For: Critical Theory. Pragmatism. Communicative rationality. discursive ethics. Universal pragmatics. rational reconstruction. performative contradiction.
It works out:The structural change of the public(1962).knowledge and human interests(1968).The theory of communicative action(1981). „Modern versus Postmodern“ (1981).The philosophical discourse of modernity(1985).Between facts and norms: Contributions to a discourse theory of law and democracy(1992).The inclusion of the other(1996).
An undated photograph by Jürgen Habermas.
Thomas Kuehn(USA, 1922-1996) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. historical twist. paradigm shift. incommensurability. normal science. Kuhn loss.
It works out:The Copernicus Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought(1957). „The role of measurement in modern physics“ (1961).The Structure of Scientific Revolutions(1962). „The role of dogma in scientific inquiry“ (1963). „Discovery logic or research psychology?“ (1970).The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scholarly Tradition and Change(1977). „Objectivity, value judgment and choice of theory“ (1977). „metaphor in science“ (1979). „Rationality and theoretical choice“ (1983).Blackbody Theory and the Quantum Discontinuity, 1894-1912(1987). „The problem of historical philosophy of science“ (1992).The way from structure: philosophical essays, 1970-1993(2000).
An undated photo by Thomas Kuhn from Bill PierceTime Life Pictures/Getty Images.
Gilles Deleuze(France, 1925-1995) (in 4 lists)
Known for: Poststructuralism. postmodernism. Influence. Assembly. deterritorialization. airline. plan of immanence. schizoanalysis. Transcendental Empiricism. clarity of being. the virtual.
It works out:difference and repetition(1968).The logic of the senses(1968).Capitalism and Schizophrenia: Anti-Oedipus(comFElix Guattari) (1972). "One manifest less(also Carmelo Bene) (1978).thousand plateaus(with Felix Guattari) (1980).negotiations(1990).Critical and clinical tests(1993).
An undated photograph by Gilles Deleuze.
Michel Foucault(France, 1926-1984) (in 9 lists)
Known for: Poststructuralism. speech analysis. discursive education. panopticon. subjectification.
It works out:The Story of Madness(1961).The birth of the clinic(1963).The order of things(1966).The archeology of knowledge(1969).discipline and punishment(1975).The History of Sexuality(1976).
A photograph of Michel Foucault c. 1965
Noam Chomsky(USA, 1928-) (in 6 Listen)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. cognitive science. Universal Grammar. Generative Grammar. Chomsky hierarchy. Minimalist program.
It works out:Logical structure of language theory(1955).syntactic structures(1957).Current questions in language theory(1964).aspects of syntax theory(1965).The political economy of human rights(1979).Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media(1988).Necessary Illusions: Mind Control in Democratic Societies(1989).the minimalist program(1995).Objectivity and liberal erudition(1997).
An undated photo of Noam Chomsky.
Judith JarvisThomson(USA, 1929-) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. The violinist's argument. moral objectivity.
It works out: "A defense of abortion“ (1971). „The tram problem“ (1985).Rights, restitution and risk(1986). „friendliness and utilitarianism“ (1993).the realm of rights(1992).Moral relativism and moral objectivity(with Gilbert Harman) (1996).friendliness and advice(2001).
A 2010 photo of Judith Jarvis Thomson by Steve Pyke.
Jacques Derrida(Algeria/France, 1930-2004) (in 6 lists)
Known for: Poststructuralism. deconstruction. radical hermeneutics.
It works out:of grammatology(1967).language and phenomena(1967).writing and difference(1978).The postcard: from Socrates to Freud and beyond(1980).margins of philosophy(1982).About spirit: Heidegger and the question(1987).Limited Inc.(Including "Context of subscription event“ (1988).About the right to philosophy(1990).
An undated photograph by Jacques Derrida.
irigaray-Light(Belgium/France, 1930- ) (in 3 lists)
Known For: Feminism. "Women in the Market"
It works out:Another woman's speculum(1974).This sex is not(1977).Elemental passions(1982).the belief itself(1983).An ethics of sexual difference(1984).Talking is never neutral(1985).genders and genealogies(1987).Je, tu, nous: On the way to a culture of difference(1990).be two(1997).Between East and West: From Singularity to Community(1999).
An undated photo of Luce Irigaray.
Ricardo Rörty(USA, 1931-2007) (in 6 Listen)
Known for: Pragmatism. post-analytic philosophy. post philosophy. Irony. Final Vocabulary. Epistemological behaviorism. anti-representationalism.
It works out:Philosophy and the mirror of nature(1979).consequences of pragmatism(1982).contingency, irony and solidarity(1989).Objectivity, relativism and truth(1990).philosophy and social hope(1999).Philosophy as cultural politics(2007).
A 2003 photo of Richard Rorty by Steve Pyke.
Amartya Sen(If, 1933- ) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Ability Approach. economic satisfaction. social choice theory. Nobel Prize in Economics (1998).
Works: Collective Choice and Social Security (1970). Poverty and Hunger: An Essay on Right and Deprivation (1981). Choice, Wellbeing, and Measurement (1983). Resources and Skills (1985). Inequality reexamined (1992). Development as Freedom (1999). The Idea of Justice (2009).
A photograph of Amartya Sen from c. 1998
Thomas Nagel(Yugoslavia/USA, 1937- ) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. Rationalism. Radical skepticism. practical thinking. Individualism.
It works out:The possibility of altruism(1970). „What is it like to be a bat?“ (1974).deadly questions(1979).The view out of nowhere(1986).What does it all mean?: A brief introduction to philosophy(1987).equality and partisanship(1991).The last word(1997).other thoughts(1999).Concealment and Disclosure(2002).spirit and cosmos(2012).
A photograph by Thomas Nagel from 1978.
Robert Nozick(USA, 1938-2002) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. libertarianism. Utility Monster. experience the machine. lockean clause. Deontological paradox. legal theory. Deductive reasoning. Four conditions for knowledge.
It works out:Anarchy, State and Utopia(1974).philosophical explanations(1981).An Examined Life(1989).The nature of rationality(1993).Socratic riddles(1997).Invariances: the structure of the objective world(2001).
An undated photo by Robert Nozick first published in the Harvard Gazette.
Saulus Kripke(USA, 1940-) (in 6 Listen)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. Kripke-Platek set theory. reference theories. Fairly acceptable. Kripke structure. Kripke's semantics. Disclaimer principle. accessibility relationship. Rule Follower Paradox. Necessary truths a priori.
It works out: "Semantic considerations on modal logic“ (1963). „Principles of a theory of truth“ (1975). „A mystery of faith“ (1979).date and need(1980).Wittgenstein on rules and private language(1982).
An undated photo of Saul Kripke on the beach.
John McDowell(South Africa/Great Britain/USA, 1942- ) (in 3 lists)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. therapeutic philosophy. Perceptual content is conceptually "to the end."
It works out:mind and world(1994).spirit, value and reality(1998).meaning, knowledge and reality(1998).The World in View: Essays on Kant, Hegel and Sellars(2009).The engaged intellect: philosophical essays(2009).
An undated photo of John McDowell.
Peter Singer(Australia, 1946- ) (in 5 lists)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. Utilitarianism. Same balancing of interests. Analogy to the drowning child. Effective altruism.
It works out: "hunger, wealth and morality“ (1972).animal liberation(1975).practical ethics(1979).how should we live Ethics in the age of self-interest(1993).Rethinking Life and Death: The Collapse of Our Traditional Ethics(1994).A Darwinian left(1999).One World: The Ethics of Globalization(2002).The Life You Can Save: Act now to end world poverty(2009).The point of view of the universe(with Karazyna de Lazari-Radek) (2014).The greatest good you can do(2015).
A 2015 photo of Peter Singer by Tristan Martin/THOMSON REUTERS FOUNDATION.
Martha Nussbaum(USA, 1947-) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Analytical philosophy. capability approach. Feminism. multiculturalism.
It works out:The fragility of the good(1986).sex and social justice(1998).Hiding From Humanity: Loathing, Shame, and the Law(2004).Limits of Justice: Disability, Nationality, Species(2006).From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation and Constitutional Law(2010).
A photo of Martha Nussbaum from 2008.
Slavoj Žižek(Slovenia/Yugoslavia, 1949- ) (in 4 lists)
Known for: Freudo-Marxism. School of Psychoanalysis in Ljubljana. Lacanian psychoanalysis. Hegelianism. dialectical materialism. Ideology as unconscious fantasy. False Consciousness.
It works out:The sublime object of ideology(1989).The abyss of freedom(1997).in faith(2001).Welcome to the desert of the real(2002).body without body(2003).Die Parallax-Vision(2006).life in the end times(2010).Less Than Nothing: Hegel and the Shadow of Dialectical Materialism(2012).Absolute retreat: towards a new basis of dialectical materialism(2014).
I gave the photo to Slavoj Žižek.
Cornel West(USA, 1953- ) (in 3 Listen)
Known for: Neopragmatism. Existentialism. African philosophy. Historicism.
It works out:Prophetic Fragments(1988).The American Evasion of Philosophy: A Geneology of Pragmatism(1989).The ethical dimensions of Marxist thought(1991).Prophetic Thinking in Postmodern Times: Beyond Eurocentrism and Multiculturalism(1993).race counts(1994).Democracy questions(2004).The Rich and the Rest of Us: A Manifesto on Poverty(my Tavis Smiley) (2012).
An undated photo of Cornel West.
Judith Butler(USA, 1956-)
Known For: Critical Theory. poststructuralism. postmodernism. Third wave feminism. Strange theory. performative turn. Gender as a social construction. gender performativity.
It works out: "Performative acts and gender constitution“ (1988). „imitation and gender insubordination“ (1990).Gender Issues: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity(1990).Bodys that matter: on the discursive boundaries of sex(1993).Excitable discourse: a politics of the performative(1997).undo gender(2004).Precarious Living: The Powers of Grief and Violence(2004).accountable(2005).sense of the subject(2015).Notes on a performative montage theory(2015).
A photo of Judith Butler from 2012.