|Abelard, Pierre||🇫🇷 France||1079 – 1142||Pierre Abelard was a scholastic philosopher and theologian who fought for peace between religions and developed an ethic of responsibility to that end. Abelardo's famous phrase:|
The master key to knowledge is, yes, a persistent and frequent questioning
|Adelard of Bath||🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧||1080 – 1162||Adelard of Bath was a natural philosopher. The scholastics recognized in Spain the superiority of Arab science. Adelardo de Bath translated and disseminated his knowledge in mathematics, medicine and astronomy.|
|Adorno, Theodor W.||🇩🇪 Germany||1903 – 1969||Theodor W Adorno was an influential member of the “Frankfurt School”. In his critical theory “minima morelia” (1951) he returns to the ethical question of the “doctrine of the good life”. Other works: "Dialectic of Enlightenment" (1947, together with Max Horkheimer) and "Negative Dialectic" (1966).|
|Alcmaeon of Crotona||🇮🇹 Italia||c500 ac||Alcmaeon of Crotona was a Pythagorean. According to his thesis, the lack of harmony is the cause of many diseases. For Alcmaeon de Croton, the brain is the organ of perception.|
|Alcuin of York||🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧||735 – 804||Alcuin of York was an English scholar, clergyman, poet, and teacher. The scholastic and director of the Escola do Paço de Carlos Magno taught the “seven liberal arts” in his classes.|
|Althusius, Johannes||🇩🇪 Germany||1557 – 1638||According to Althusius, the state is based on a social contract; the town is politically and religiously independent. His most famous work was "Politics Methodically Digested and Illustrated by Sacred and Profane Examples" (first published in 1603).|
|Anselmo de Canterbury||🇮🇹 Italia||1033 – 1109||Anselm of Canterbury the Scholastic was one of the main proponents of the ontological proof of God; "Credo ut intelligam" (I believe to understand).|
|Aquino, Thomas||🇮🇹 Italia||1225 – 1274||Thomas Aquinas found a solution to the question of who should decide about the truth, the mind or the church. Thomas Aquinas proposed 5 proofs using reason to demonstrate the existence of God and the immortality of the soul. The best known work of Thomas Aquinas, "Summa Theologiae".|
|Arcesilau||🇹🇷 Turkey||316 – 241 aC||Arcesilaus taught suspension of judgment (the skeptical approach) and refuted claims of certainty in knowledge.|
|Arch of Tarentum||🇮🇹 Italia||428 – 347 aC||Archytas of Taranto was a Pythagorean. The number is the basis of knowledge. Archytas was the founder of mathematical mechanics.|
|Arendt, Hanna||🇩🇪 Germany||1906 – 1975||Hannah Arendt was a Jewish existential philosopher who first fled to France and then in 1941 to the United States, where she taught as the first woman at Princeton University. She particularly fought with Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers and called for a European federalism: direct democracy with greater political participation of each individual. Arendt's best-known work: "The Origins of Totalitarianism" (1955).|
|Aristarchus of Samos||🇬🇷 Greece||310 – 230 aC||Aristarchus of Samos developed a heliocentric worldview and considered the sun to be a fixed star.|
|Aristotle||🇬🇷 Greece||384 – 322 aC||Aristotle was a student of Plato and a teacher of Alexander the Great. He developed logic from two premises that led to a conclusion. Aristotle saw philosophy as a science and dealt with virtue ethics, in which perfect happiness is sought. The ultimate end of man, he affirms, is rational thought. Among the greatest philosophers of all time. Aristotle's famous quote:|
Criticism is something we can easily avoid if we say nothing, do nothing, and are nothing.
|Augustine of Hippo||🇩🇿 Algeria||354 – 430||Augustine of Hippo was the father of Western Christian theology and philosophy for nearly 1,000 years. He influential in the development of original sin and the doctrine of grace by which God grants salvation to sinners. He in favor of the separation of church and state.|
|Averroes Ibn Rushd||🇪🇸 Spain||1126 – 1198||Averroes Ibn Rušd was one of the greatest Islamic philosophers. The spirit of man is immortal, religion is for the masses, but a philosophy needs reason.|
|Avicenna||🇮🇷 Iran||980 – 1037||Avicenna was a child prodigy of the Middle Ages. Avicenna was not only one of the greatest philosophers, but also a physician, physician, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, theologian, geologist, lawyer, inventor, and also wrote poetry. Avicenna led a life made for the movies and wrote two medical encyclopedias on diagnosis, treatment, prevention, hygiene, medicinal plants, surgery, cosmetics, and medicines.|
I prefer a short life in breadth to a narrow one in length.
|bacon, francisco||🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧||1561 – 1626||Sir Francis Bacon was a pioneer of the scientific method and wrote the utopian "New Atlantis." In his theory, all consciousness is derived from feelings or sensations. For Bacon, the world works in a purely mechanical way. Famous quote by Francis Bacon:|
knowledge is power
|Bacon, Rogerio||🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧||1214 – 1294||Roger Bacon was a Franciscan friar who studied nature using empirical methods. The baccalaureate turned against prejudice, custom and the lack of self-criticism.|
|Bergson, Henrique||🇫🇷 France||1859 – 1941||Henri Bergson is a representative of the philosophy of life and precursor of existentialism. Unlike Immanuel Kant, he distinguished between space (homogeneous) and time (flow): "Space is detected by the mind, time by intuition." Bergson coined the term “élan vital”, a spiritual force that drives development.Henri Bergson won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1927. Works: "Time and free will" (1889), "Matter and memory" (1896), "Laughter" (1900), "Creative evolution" (1907).|
|Berkeley, Jorge||🇮🇪 Ireland||1685 – 1753||George Berkeley was influenced by "sensationalism". Berkeley raised skeptical questions about "morals and ethics" and created "immaterialism," which is also sometimes called "subjective idealism." Famous quote from George Berkeley:|
The truth is the cry of all, but the game of a few
|Bloch, Ernesto||🇩🇪 Germany||1885 – 1977||In addition to Adorno, Habermas and Horkheimer, Ernst Bloch was one of the main representatives of the "Frankfurt School". In his book "The Beginning of Hope" he analyzes the meaning of utopia for people's lives today.|
|Bruno, Jordan||🇮🇹 Italia||1548 – 1600||Giordano Bruno was a Dominican friar who announced the infinity of the universe and God as the source of eternal change. He died at the stake in Rome for believing that nature evolved to perfect itself.|
|Calvin, John||🇫🇷 France||1509 – 1564||John Calvin wrote the "Geneva Catechism" and a church order with "strict church discipline."|
|Campanela, Thomas||🇮🇹 Italia||1568 – 1639||Tommaso Campanella was the Italian who wrote the utopia of the "Sunshine State" and spent 27 years in prison during the Inquisition.|
|Capela, Marciano||🇩🇿 Algeria||350 – 400||Martianus Capella was a Neoplatonist and defined the canon of the seven liberal arts. Trivium: grammar, rhetoric, logic. E quadrivium: arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy.|
|Chrysippus||🇹🇷 Turkey||276 – 204 aC||Chrysippus created the base of the Stoa with 705 books and formulated the Stoic ideal of freedom of effects; The terms are generalizations of our perception of objects.|
|Cicero||🇮🇹 Italia||106 – 43 aC||Cicero was a politician, lawyer and orator and represented the teachings of the Stoics and the academies. He is considered a pioneer of humanism, the doctrine of natural law, and general common sense. He one of the greatest philosophers of Italy.|
|clean||🇹🇷 Turkey||331 – 251 aC||Stoic and former boxer; for Cleanthes, virtuous action is only possible through knowledge of reality.|
|Count, Augustus||🇫🇷 France||1798 – 1857||Charity was the supreme duty for Auguste Comte, he developed positivism, a science that is based on tangible facts and their empirical connection. Auguste Comte said|
God and man are as one
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|Confucius||🇨🇳China||561 – 479 aC||Confucius taught five virtues (love, righteousness, diligence, honesty, reciprocity) and three social obligations (loyalty, filial piety, respect for decency, and morality). Confucius is one of the greatest philosophers of all time.|
|Dante Alighieri||🇮🇹 Italia||1265 – 1321||Dante is one of the most important poets and one of the greatest philosophers of Italy. With "Monarchia", around 1316, he writes a work on an independent state of the church and recognizes that "there are things that cannot be influenced". These things can only be observed. Other important works: Convivio (1306), The Divine Comedy (1307-20), Quaestio (1320)|
|Democritus||🇬🇷 Greece||460 – 370 aC||As an atomist, he believed that matter (including the soul) is made up of an infinite number of tiny particles (atoms), which are in perpetual motion; Along with Leucippus, Democritus is considered the father of atomic theory.|
|Descartes, Rene||🇫🇷 France||1596 – 1650||In his famous book "Principles of Philosophy" (1641), René Descartes wrote "Cogito, ergo sum" (I think, therefore I am). The French mathematician and scientist saw no connection between the body and the soul, instead replacing it with spirit and nature. With such reasoning he founded, among other things, "rationalism" and "dualism." Other important works: "The passion of the soul" (1649) and "On the town" (1662). One of the greatest philosophers of France.|
|diogenes||🇬🇷 Greece||399 – 329 aC||Diogenes was a Socratic and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy. Diogenes was one of the greatest philosophers, but he probably did not live in a barrel as is widely said. However, he complained to Alexander the Great, telling him to "take your shadow off me" when his view of the sun was blocked.|
|Dionisio||🇬🇷 Greece||c500 ac||Everything visible is just a metaphor for the invisible. God is the cause, the principle, the being and the life for Dionysus. Through cleansing (catharsis) and enlightenment (photismos) it is possible to achieve a kind of perfection.|
|Duns Scott, John||🏴 SofaScore, United Kingdom 🇬🇧||1265 – 1308||John Duns Scotus was a high school student and opponent of Thomas Aquinas. He believed that the will takes precedence over reason. The good is determined by the will and, therefore, is superior to the truth.|
|Erasmus of Rotterdam||🇳🇱 Netherlands||1466 – 1536||Erasmus of Rotterdam was a friend of Thomas More and an Augustinian critic of the church, but also an opponent of Martin Luther on the issue of free will. He defended religious tolerance and opposed nationalism and war. Erasmus' main work was "In Praise of Folly" (1509).|
|Epithet||🇹🇷 Turkey||50 – 138||Epictetus was a Stoic philosopher with a great work on morality. famous quote from Epictetus:|
Men are not disturbed by things, but by the vision they have of them.
|epicurus||🇬🇷 Greece||341 – 270 aC||Epicurus was an atomist who gathered his disciples in a garden where he taught physics, canon (theory of knowledge) and ethics. He claimed that the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain were at the heart of human morality and governed all our actions. One of the greatest philosophers.|
|Eusebius of Caesarea||🇮🇱Israel||260 – 337||Eusebius of Caesarea (Eusebius Pamphili) is considered the father of church history because of his chronicles.|
|Feuerbach, Luis||🇩🇪 Germany||1804 – 1872||Ludwig Feuerbach is a famous representative of the materialist philosophy. Feuerbach further developed the "dialectical method" together with Karl Marx.|
|Fichte, Johann Gottlieb||🇩🇪 Germany||1762 – 1814||Johann Gottlieb Fichte was a German idealist. Fichte had an impact on the teachings of government, ethics, and law with his theories of "subjective idealism."|
|Fortescue, Juan||🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧||1394 – 1476||Sir John Fortescue was a judge. In his belief, the king's power was based on public consent rather than the grace of God. Famous quote from John Fortescue:|
Better that twenty guilty escape the death penalty than one innocent be convicted and suffer the death penalty.
|frankfurt school||🇩🇪 Germany||1923 onwards||This group of neo-Marxist philosophers, sociologists and academics that emerged from the “IfS Institute for Social Research” (founded by Felix Weil) originated in Frankfurt. Followers such as Adorno, Bloch, Habermas, Horkheimer, Marcuse, Fromm, and Alfred Schmidt took up "critical theory" and dealt with ideological and socio-critical questions. Main work: "Dialectic of Enlightenment" (1944-47 by Adorno and Horkheimer).|
|galileo, galileo||🇮🇹 Italia||1564 – 1642||Galileo Galilei opposed Aristotelian concepts and instead offered the law of fall as the basis of mechanics which became the basis of the new philosophy. Galileo Galilei was tried for heresy in part for beliefs such as "The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics."|
|Giles of Rome||🇮🇹 Italia||1243 – 1316||Giles of Rome was a prominent theologian and high scholar, he wrote a catalog of 95 false doctrines.|
|Gregory of Nyssa||🇹🇷 Turkey||335 – 394||Gregory of Nyssa was the Father of the Orthodox Church; Nissa taught the infinity of God and the Trinity.|
|Habermas, Jurgen||🇩🇪 Germany||1929||Jürgen Habermas was a philosopher and sociologist, best known for his contributions to "critical theories" and to the moral and social philosophy of the Marxist origins of the "Frankfurt School". Main work: "Theory of Communicative Action".|
|Hartmann, Nicolai||🇱🇻 Latvia||1882 – 1950||Nicolai Hartmann developed a layered structure of being; the ideal being (values, mathematics) is timeless and infinite, the real being (life, soul, spirit) is temporary and individual.|
|Heidegger, Martín||🇩🇪 Germany||1889 – 1976||Martin Heidegger was one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century and the founder of fundamental ontology. Among other things, he saw modern technology as a threat, realizing that it changes our attitudes/opinions towards the world. He helped shape Sartre, Gadamer, Hannah Arendt, and many others. Major work "Being and time" (1927).|
|Hegel, Jorge Federico||🇩🇪 Germany||1770 – 1831||Friedrich Hegel was the main representative of German idealism; thesis-antithesis-synthesis. Hegel believed that we only perceive the world indirectly and our minds only have access to images and perceptions of it (a virtual reality). Hegel's most famous works: Phenomenology of Spirit (1806/07), Science of Logic (1831).|
|heraclitus||🇹🇷 Turkey||540 – 480 aC||Heraclitus believed that all opposites are changing and in constant motion (Greek: “panta rhei” = everything flows). For example, war and peace, day and night, wealth and poverty, etc. For Heraclitus, the dispute was the father of everything (dialectic).|
|Hobbes, Thomas||🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧||1588 – 1679||Thomas Hobbes said that life without a state would be "lonely, poor, instinctive, and short." Waiver of individual freedom for the benefit of the State. Hobbes' main work: Leviathan (1651).|
|Horkheimer, Max||🇩🇪 Germany||1895 – 1973||Max Horkheimer, as a representative of the "Frankfurt School", was guided by Marxist principles together with Adorno, Bloch, Habermas and Marcuse, and supported the student revolt of 1968. His main works: "Dialectic of Enlightenment" (1947, together with Adorno) and "Critique of instrumental reason" (1967).|
|hum, david||🏴 SofaScore, United Kingdom 🇬🇧||1711 – 1776||David Hume in his "epistemology" divided the mind into two classes: sensory impressions and ideas.|
|Husserl, Edmundo||🇩🇪 Germany||1859 – 1938||Edmund Husserl took Brentano's "intentionality" of consciousness and made it the central message of his phenomenology. Truth is a recognizable fact. Major work: "Being and time" (1927).|
|Jaspers, Karl||🇩🇪 Germany||1883 – 1969||Not only a world-renowned philosopher, but also a leading psychiatrist. Karl Jaspers is considered one of the main representatives of German existential philosophy. He is a close friend of Martin Heidegger and Hannah Ahrends. In 1945 he founded the philosophy magazine "Die Wandlung" (The Conversion) and in 1953 he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Heidelberg. His work consists of more than 30 books and several thousand letters and essays.|
|Juan de Salisbury||🇬🇧 United Kingdom||1120 – 1180||John of Salisbury (also known as Johannes von Salisbury, Little John) was a philosopher, theologian, and scholar. John the Little opposed the extremes of realism and nominalism in favor of common sense, a doctrine of utilitarianism, founded on his admiration for Cicero's literary skepticism. Johannes von Salisbury believed that education was not just intellectual but moral, basically the worldview of Renaissance humanism.|
|Kant, Immanuel||🇩🇪 Germany||1724 – 1804||Immanuel Kant was a highly influential German philosopher whose work "The Critique of Pure Reason" (1781) is considered one of the most important in modern philosophy. Kant conceived the maxim of the “categorical imperative”, a moral principle:|
Act only in accordance with that maxim for which at the same time you can want it to become a universal law.
|Kierkegaard, Soren||🇩🇰 Denmark||1813 – 1855||For Kierkegaard, considered the founder of existentialism, the spirit and critique of organized religion are at the center of his philosophy, believing that our existence is our own choice. His most important work: “Either / Or” (1843).|
|Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm||🇩🇪 Germany||1646 – 1716||Gottfried Leibniz is famous for his boundless optimism, believing that God created the best possible Universe and that many substances exist in common harmony, as between body and soul. In his 1710 essay "Theodicy" he seeks to explain how the suffering of the world is possible despite the fact that God is omnipotent and good.|
|Locke, Juan||🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧||1632 – 1704||John Locke was an initiator of the "Enlightenment" (explanation of circumstances through reason) and an empiricist, who saw the human mind as a blank slate that was only written throughout life. He one of the greatest philosophers of England.|
|Lawrence, Paul||🇩🇪 Germany||1915 – 1994||Together with Wilhelm Kamlah Lorenzen he was one of the founders of the "Erlangen School" of methodological constructivism. He was also the developer of logical propaedeutics (reasonable discourse preschool) and dialogic logic (game semantics).|
|Luther, Martin||🇩🇪 Germany||1483 – 1556||Initiator of the Reformation. In his 95 Theses (which he nailed to the door of Wittenberg Castle Church in 1517), Martin Luther protested against indulgences, the sale of public office, pilgrimages, and self-punishment, arguing that salvation comes by faith and grace alone. of God. Luther translated the New Testament from Latin to German in just 11 weeks, making it widely accessible (1522).|
|Machiavelli, Nicholas||🇮🇹 Italia||1469-1527||Political philosopher of the modern era; Machiavelli advised state leaders in "Il Principe" ("The Prince", 1513/32) on cunning and deceit.|
|Marcuse, Herbert||🇩🇪 Germany||1898 – 1979||Neo-Marxist supporter and member of the “Frankfurt School”. Herbert Marcuse was a great critic of capitalism.|
|Marx, Carlos||🇩🇪 Germany||1818-1883||The founder of historical materialism and forerunner of communism lived in poverty. "Social being determines consciousness." He wrote his most famous work "Das Kapital" in 1867.|
|Mill, John Stuart||🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧||1806 – 1873||John Stuart Mill was a representative of liberalism. One of John Mill's most famous quotes:|
The essence of freedom is to do what you want to do.
|More, Thomas||🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧||1478 – 1535||Sir Thomas More, the humanist in "Utopia," called for social reform. Saint Thomas More was convicted of treason and beheaded by Henry VIII. Famous quote from Thomas More:|
I don't hurt anyone, I don't say bad to anyone, I don't think ill of anyone, but I wish everyone the best. And if that's not enough to keep a man alive, in good faith, I don't want to live.
|Nicholas of Cusa||🇩🇪 Germany||1401 – 1464||Link between medieval scholasticism and Renaissance mysticism and metaphysics. In his book “De Docta Ignorantia”, Nicholas of Cusa writes about the limits of human knowledge.|
|Nietzsche, Frederick||🇩🇪 Germany||1844 – 1900||His philosophy was directed against Christianity, which he claimed produced a "slave morality". Nietzsche created the "superman" who was mistreated by the Nazis. Perceived reality always has a subjective perspective. A selection of his works: Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1885), The Gay Science (1887), Ecce Homo-How to Become What You Are (1908).|
|Parmenides||🇬🇷 Greece||515 – 445 aC||Parmenides was an important Presocrates and founder of the Eleatic philosophical school that had a great influence on Plato. Parmenides was convinced that thinking and being are identical. The only known surviving works of Parmenides are fragments of a poem in which he reasons that reality is one, change is impossible, and existence is timeless and uniform. One of the best known Greek philosophers. Famous quote from Parmenides:|
I don't care where I start, because there I will return again.
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|Pascual, Blaise||🇫🇷 France||1623 – 1662||Blaise Pascal was a mathematician, logician, theologian, physicist, and philosopher. Pascal assumed that the mind and the senses are wrong and sought a path between dogmatism and rationalism. Pascal died before finishing his book Thoughts: Thoughts on Religion and Other Subjects (1669 posthumously).|
|Paul of Tarsus||🇬🇷 Greece||5 CA - 67 CC||Saint Paul of Tarsus (also known as Saul and the Apostle Paul) insisted that faith in Jesus was all that was needed because the world is, and always will be, under a state of Grace in Jesus, a central belief of all Christian sects. Paul is also credited with the concept that God's moral law (the Ten Commandments) is innately understood by all humans who reach the age of reason.|
|Pico della Mirandola, John||🇮🇹 Italia||1463 – 1494||Giovanni Pico della Mirandola was a Renaissance philosopher who developed 900 theses “On the dignity of man”. The "900 Theses" was the first printed book banned by the Roman Catholic Church. In them Giovanni stated:|
Free will is the most characteristic trait of man.
|Plato||🇬🇷 Greece||427 – 347 aC||Plato was a student of Socrates, a teacher of Aristotle, and one of the greatest philosophers of all time. Plato saw dialogue as a method of obtaining knowledge and founded transcendental idealism: "Knowledge is reasoned opinion." Plato was very productive writing a total of 36 works, including "Politeia", which includes this famous quote from Plato:|
Everything that exists is just a shadow.
|Plotinus||🇬🇷 Greece||205 – 270||Plotinus (along with his teacher Ammonius Saccas) founded Neoplatonism, a doctrine that dates back to Plato. The living being and the universe have a soul. The soul of the world stands as the third between being and matter. To become one with the one, it must be purified by sensuality. Plotinus's writings have inspired metaphysicians and other thinkers throughout history.|
|tire porphyry||🇬🇷 Greece||234 – 304||Porfirio de Tiro was a Neoplatonic philosopher, opponent of Christianity and vegetarian. Porfirio edited and published The Enneads. He also wrote a systematic introduction to Aristotle's "Categories" called "Isagoge", a source for the dispute over universals. Famous quote from Porfirio:|
Therefore, people should abstain from other animals, just as they should abstain from human beings.
|Popper, Charles||🇦🇹 Austria 🇬🇧||1902 – 1994||Sir Karl Popper represented “critical rationalism”. Popper's main work: "Logik der Forschung" (1934) criticized "logical positivism" and the main representatives of the "Wiener Kreis" (Vienna Circle). Karl Popper's famous phrase:|
True ignorance is not the absence of knowledge, but the refusal to acquire it.
|Proclus (the successor)||🇬🇷 Greece||412 – 485||Proclus Lycius, after Ammonios Sakkas, was one of the leaders of the Neoplatonic School of Athens. Proclus saw it all and described an elaborate system of fully developed Neoplatonism that has greatly influenced Western philosophy. Proclus was one of the most productive Greek philosophers, two of his most important surviving works are "The Elements of Theology" and "Platonic Theology."|
|Protagoras||🇬🇷 Greece||490 – 411 aC||Protagoras taught relativism and was convinced that truth depends on perspective and is therefore "relative." "Man is (therefore) the measure of all things." Protagoras was a wandering teacher (a sophist). He was ridiculed and criticized by Socrates and Plato, but they did not influence him. Protagoras said:|
Judgments are always subjective.
|Ptolemy, Claudius||🇬🇷 Greece||100 – 170||Claudio Ptolemy, in addition to being a philosopher, was a skeptical genius, multifaceted, mathematician, geographer, astronomer and astrologer. Ptolemy developed a geocentric worldview (ie, the Earth is at the center of the universe) that was decisive during the Middle Ages. Ptolemy also wrote "Almagest," a lengthy 13-volume work on mathematics and astronomy.|
|Elis Pyrrhus||🇬🇷 Greece||360 – 270 CA||Pyrrhus of Elis was the founder of Pyrrhonism and the first skeptical Greek philosopher. Truth cannot be established either by sense perception or by judgment.|
|Pythagoras||🇬🇷 Greece||570 – 495 aC||Pythagoras was the founder of Pythagoreanism, which advocated vegetarianism, believing that any being experiencing pain or suffering should not be inflicted with unnecessary pain. In the philosophy of nature of Pythagoras, the harmony of numbers and order was the essence and structure of all things "The essence of the cosmos is number." Pythagoras also recognized that the Earth is spherical. Plato was not only one of the greatest philosophers, but also a famous mathematician. He developed the Pythagorean geometric theorem and the equation for calculating the area of right triangles: a² + b² = c².|
|Bouquet, Peter||🇫🇷 France||1517 – 1572||Petrus Ramus was a Renaissance humanist who developed a "non-Aristotelian" approach to pedagogy, seeking to simplify and order philosophical and school education (ramismo). Ramus, a Huguenot convert, was killed by a Catholic mob during the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre on August 23 and 24, 1572.|
|Rousseau, Jean Jacques||🇨🇭 Switzerland (Republic of Geneva)||1712 – 1778||Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer who saw in society and civilization the reasons for the evils of the time and advocated a return to the virtues of freedom, innocence and nature, to eliminate the inequality that it had arisen among human beings. Rousseau wrote: "Man is born free and yet (through the laws) he is everywhere in chains," which includes spiritual and social chains. Rousseau's most notable work was: "The Social Contract" (Vom Gesellschaftsvertrag oder Prinzipien des Staatsrechtes) published in 1762.|
|Russel, Bertrand||🇬🇧 United Kingdom||1872 – 1970||Bertrand Russell was a logician, mathematician, historian, political activist, social critic, pacifist, liberal, socialist, and philosopher. Russell received aNobel Prize for Literature in 1950. Russell, along with Alfred Whitehead, represented New Realism as a logical-mathematical science and was one of the founders of analytic philosophy. Russell published his views on all major areas of philosophy apart from aesthetics. Bertrand Russell's famous phrase:|
It is the preoccupation with possessions, more than anything else, that prevents men from living freely and nobly.
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|Sartre, Jean-Paul||🇫🇷 France||1905 – 1980||Jean-Paul Sartre was the creator and main representative of existentialism and was also a playwright, screenwriter, novelist and critic. Existence precedes being "Being is what it is." Man is condemned to freedom. Liability cannot be ruled out. Sartre's main work: "Being and Nothingness" (1943). Sartre was the life partner of Simone de Beauvoir. Famous quote from Jean-Paul Sartre:|
My thought is me: that's why I can't stop
|Schopenhauer, Arturo||🇩🇪 Germany||1788 – 1860||Arthur Schopenhauer's best-known work, "The World as Will and Representation" (1818, enlarged 1844), depicts the world as the product of a blind and insatiable metaphysical will. Schopenhauer draws on Immanuel Kant's transcendental idealism and was one of the first Western philosophers to absorb some tenets of Indian philosophy, including self-denial and asceticism. Famous quote from Arthur Schopenhauer:|
We lost three quarters of ourselves to be like the rest
|seneca||🇮🇹 Italia||4 CA – 65 CC||Seneca (Lucius Annaeus Seneca / Seneca the Younger) was a Stoic philosopher, playwright, and statesman during the Roman Imperial period. Seneca's works discuss practical advice and ethical theory as separate but interdependent, and believe that philosophy is a "balm for life's wounds." Seneca considered it important to face one's own mortality and be able to face death. Famous quote from Seneca:|
while we teach we learn
|Smith, Adam||🏴 SofaScore, United Kingdom 🇬🇧||1723 – 1790||Adam Smith was a renowned economist, author, and moral philosopher. Smith wrote two classic works; "An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations" (1776), which advocated economic and individual liberalism. In "The theory of moral sentiments" (1759). Smith said that "man was a trading animal" and "exchange is a purely human act." Smith believed that self-love, rather than humanity or compassion, is the driving force behind every action.|
|Socrates||🇬🇷 Greece||470 – 399 aC||Socrates was one of the greatest philosophers of all time. He developed the scientific methods of dialectic, induction, and definition. Socrates placed man at the center of his contemplation:|
The only true wisdom is knowing that you know nothing.mi
A life without self-exploration is not worth living.
Socrates developed a critical thinking technique, which became known as the "Socratic method", which involves question-and-answer conversations between individuals to spark ideas and reveal biases based on assumptions.
|espeusippos||🇬🇷 Greece||408 – 339 aC||Speusippus was a student of Plato and his nephew (by his sister Potone) and inherited the Platonic Academy after Plato's death. Speusippus developed ideas on epistemology, ethics, and metaphysics, but rejected Plato's theory of forms.|
|Spinoza, Baruch de||🇳🇱 Netherlands||1632 – 1677||Spinoza was one of the most important and original thinkers of the 17th century involved in most areas of philosophy. Spinoza developed the monistic philosophy from him, which became known as Spinozism. Spinoza's philosophical views and theories are included in his two main works; "Theological-Political Treatise" (1670 anonymous) and "Ethics" (1677 posthumously). Famous quote from Spinoza:|
Happiness is a virtue, not its reward
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|Thales of Miletus||🇬🇷 Greece||625 – 547 aC||Thales of Miletus was a pre-Socratic philosopher, astronomer, mathematician, one of the Seven Sages of Greece, and the father of modern science. Thales tried to rationally explain natural processes and phenomena. Thales believed that water is the primordial material of the world; "Everything consists of water." Thales as an astronomer predicted a solar eclipse and as a mathematician the “Thales Theorem” proves that all angles in a semicircular arc are right angles. Famous phrase from Tales:|
The hardest thing in life is knowing yourself.
|Theophrastus||🇬🇷 Greece||371 – 287 aC||Theophrastus was the successor to Aristotle in the Peripatetic philosophical school. Theophrastus emphasized natural causation rather than the goal or cause of purpose. Most of his writings have been lost, so his views have been reconstructed from Alexander's later works of Aphrodisias and Simplicio. Famous quote from Theophrastus:|
Time is the most valuable thing a man can spend.
|Valla, Lawrence||🇮🇹 Italia||1406 – 1457||Lorenzo Valla (Laurentius) was a humanist, rhetorician, educator, and Catholic priest. Valla examined the freedom of the human will and favored a positive evaluation of pleasure. Valla is considered the father of modern textual criticism.|
|Voltaire||🇫🇷 France||1694 – 1778||Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) was a prolific French Enlightenment philosopher, historian, and writer who published more than 2,000 books. He defended freedom of speech and religion, the separation of church and state, and civil liberties. Voltaire was involved with the Lumières and the Philosophes. Voltaire embraced deism and classical liberalism. Voltaire's main work was "Candide" (1759). Voltaire's famous quote:|
Man is free when he wants to be.
|Whitehead, Alfredo Norte||🇬🇧 United Kingdom||1861 – 1947||Alfred North Whitehead was a logician and mathematician who became one of the leading metaphysicians of the 20th century. With his friend and former student Bertrand Russell, he wrote "Principia Mathematika" (1911-1913), an important three-volume work on logic. In Whitehead's "Process and Reality" (1929), he argues that reality is a dynamically developing organism. Famous quote from Alfred North Whitehead:|
The art of progress is to preserve order in the midst of change and to preserve change in the midst of order.
|Guillermo de Occam||🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧||1280 – 1347||William of Occam was a late scholastic who represented conceptualism and advocated the separation of church and state. William of Occam was famous for his quotes from minimalist philosophers:|
Occam's Razor” – to understand something, remove unnecessary information to get to the truth or the best explanation faster
|Wittgenstein, Luis||🇦🇹 Austria 🇬🇧||1889 – 1951||Ludwig Wittgenstein was an Austro-British philosopher primarily in logic, but also in mathematics, mind, and language. Wittgenstein belonged to the wide Viennese circle. The only book by him published during his lifetime was "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus" (1921). Wittgenstein's other manuscripts, including "Philosophical Investigations" (1953), were all published posthumously. Bertrand Russell, Wittgenstein's teacher, said:|
Perhaps the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived; passionate, deep, intense and dominant
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|wolf, christian||🇩🇪 Germany||1679 – 1754||Christian Wolff (Wolfius) was the best known German philosopher between Leibniz and Kant. His comprehensive "Philosophia practica universalis, mathematica metodo conscripta" (1703) was presented in his demonstrative-deductive mathematical method and was arguably the high point of Enlightenment rationality in Germany.|
|Wollstonecraft, María||🇬🇧 United Kingdom||1759 – 1797||Mary Wollstonecraft was a writer, philosopher, and advocate for women's rights. Her unconventional lifestyle outshone her work, but her "Vindication of the Rights of Woman: With Restraints on Political and Moral Subjects" (1792) was an early example of feminist philosophy and established her as a important feminist philosopher. She demanded that women be treated as citizens with the same legal, social and political rights. Quote from Mary Wollstonecraft:|
It is justice, not charity, that the world lacks.
|Xenophanes of Colophon||🇬🇷 Greece||570 – 470 aC||Xenophanes of Colophon was one of the first Greek philosophers. He was also a critic and poet. Fragments of his poetry quoted by later Greek writers are all that remain of his works. Famous quote from Xenophanes:|
Mortals consider the gods to be spawned as they are, having clothing like theirs, voice, and form.
|Zeno of Elea||🇬🇷 Greece||490 – 430 aC||Zeno of Elea was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher. He was a member of the Eleatic monist school founded by Parmenides.|
Aristotle said that Zeno of Elea invented the dialectical method (a dialogue between two or more people with different points of view who seek the truth through reasoned argument). Zeno of Elea examined space, time and motion and found 10 paradoxes, which Bertrand Russell described as "immeasurably subtle and deep".
|Zeno of Citium||🇬🇷 Greece||336 – 264 aC||Zeno of Citium was the founder of Stoicism which focused on logic, physics and ethics. Zeno's writings survive only as fragments in quotations from later writers. Famous quote from Zeno de Citium:|
Happiness is a good flow of life.
|Zhongshu, Dong||🇨🇳China||179 – 104 aC||Dong Zhongshu was a Chinese philosopher, writer, and politician who upheld Confucianism as the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state. Dong favored monistic worship of heaven overchinese theory of the 5 elements. Dong wrote three chapters in "Ju Xianliang Duice" in the "Book of Han" (111), and while Dong is often credited with at least partial authorship of the fourth-century "Lush Dew of the Annals of Autumn and Spring" , is probably written by several authors.|
|Zuinglio, Ulrich||🇨🇭 Switzerland||1484 – 1531||Ulrich Zwingli (Huldrych Zwingli) was primarily a church reformer, theologian, and humanist rather than a philosopher. Zwingli was influenced by the writings of Erasmus. Zwingli served as a pastor and considered himself a soldier of Christ and died in the second Kappel war fighting for Zurich. His student Heinrich Bullinger continued his reforms.|