≡ List of the 109 greatest philosophers of all time (2023)

Abelard, Pierre🇫🇷 France1079 – 1142Pierre Abelard was a scholastic philosopher and theologian who fought for peace between religions and developed an ethic of responsibility to that end. Abelardo's famous phrase:

The master key to knowledge is, yes, a persistent and frequent questioning

Adelard of Bath🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧1080 – 1162Adelard of Bath was a natural philosopher. The scholastics recognized in Spain the superiority of Arab science. Adelardo de Bath translated and disseminated his knowledge in mathematics, medicine and astronomy.Adorno, Theodor W.🇩🇪 Germany1903 – 1969Theodor W Adorno was an influential member of the “Frankfurt School”. In his critical theory “minima morelia” (1951) he returns to the ethical question of the “doctrine of the good life”. Other works: "Dialectic of Enlightenment" (1947, together with Max Horkheimer) and "Negative Dialectic" (1966).Alcmaeon of Crotona🇮🇹 Italiac500 acAlcmaeon of Crotona was a Pythagorean. According to his thesis, the lack of harmony is the cause of many diseases. For Alcmaeon de Croton, the brain is the organ of perception.Alcuin of York🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧735 – 804Alcuin of York was an English scholar, clergyman, poet, and teacher. The scholastic and director of the Escola do Paço de Carlos Magno taught the “seven liberal arts” in his classes.Althusius, Johannes🇩🇪 Germany1557 – 1638According to Althusius, the state is based on a social contract; the town is politically and religiously independent. His most famous work was "Politics Methodically Digested and Illustrated by Sacred and Profane Examples" (first published in 1603).Anselmo de Canterbury🇮🇹 Italia1033 – 1109Anselm of Canterbury the Scholastic was one of the main proponents of the ontological proof of God; "Credo ut intelligam" (I believe to understand).Aquino, Thomas🇮🇹 Italia1225 – 1274Thomas Aquinas found a solution to the question of who should decide about the truth, the mind or the church. Thomas Aquinas proposed 5 proofs using reason to demonstrate the existence of God and the immortality of the soul. The best known work of Thomas Aquinas, "Summa Theologiae".Arcesilau🇹🇷 Turkey316 – 241 aCArcesilaus taught suspension of judgment (the skeptical approach) and refuted claims of certainty in knowledge.Arch of Tarentum🇮🇹 Italia428 – 347 aCArchytas of Taranto was a Pythagorean. The number is the basis of knowledge. Archytas was the founder of mathematical mechanics.Arendt, Hanna🇩🇪 Germany1906 – 1975Hannah Arendt was a Jewish existential philosopher who first fled to France and then in 1941 to the United States, where she taught as the first woman at Princeton University. She particularly fought with Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers and called for a European federalism: direct democracy with greater political participation of each individual. Arendt's best-known work: "The Origins of Totalitarianism" (1955).Aristarchus of Samos🇬🇷 Greece310 – 230 aCAristarchus of Samos developed a heliocentric worldview and considered the sun to be a fixed star.Aristotle🇬🇷 Greece384 – 322 aCAristotle was a student of Plato and a teacher of Alexander the Great. He developed logic from two premises that led to a conclusion. Aristotle saw philosophy as a science and dealt with virtue ethics, in which perfect happiness is sought. The ultimate end of man, he affirms, is rational thought. Among the greatest philosophers of all time. Aristotle's famous quote:

Criticism is something we can easily avoid if we say nothing, do nothing, and are nothing.

Augustine of Hippo🇩🇿 Algeria354 – 430Augustine of Hippo was the father of Western Christian theology and philosophy for nearly 1,000 years. He influential in the development of original sin and the doctrine of grace by which God grants salvation to sinners. He in favor of the separation of church and state.Averroes Ibn Rushd🇪🇸 Spain1126 – 1198Averroes Ibn Rušd was one of the greatest Islamic philosophers. The spirit of man is immortal, religion is for the masses, but a philosophy needs reason.Avicenna🇮🇷 Iran980 – 1037Avicenna was a child prodigy of the Middle Ages. Avicenna was not only one of the greatest philosophers, but also a physician, physician, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, theologian, geologist, lawyer, inventor, and also wrote poetry. Avicenna led a life made for the movies and wrote two medical encyclopedias on diagnosis, treatment, prevention, hygiene, medicinal plants, surgery, cosmetics, and medicines.

I prefer a short life in breadth to a narrow one in length.

bacon, francisco🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧1561 – 1626Sir Francis Bacon was a pioneer of the scientific method and wrote the utopian "New Atlantis." In his theory, all consciousness is derived from feelings or sensations. For Bacon, the world works in a purely mechanical way. Famous quote by Francis Bacon:

knowledge is power

Bacon, Rogerio🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧1214 – 1294Roger Bacon was a Franciscan friar who studied nature using empirical methods. The baccalaureate turned against prejudice, custom and the lack of self-criticism.Bergson, Henrique🇫🇷 France1859 – 1941Henri Bergson is a representative of the philosophy of life and precursor of existentialism. Unlike Immanuel Kant, he distinguished between space (homogeneous) and time (flow): "Space is detected by the mind, time by intuition." Bergson coined the term “élan vital”, a spiritual force that drives development.Henri Bergson won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1927. Works: "Time and free will" (1889), "Matter and memory" (1896), "Laughter" (1900), "Creative evolution" (1907).Berkeley, Jorge🇮🇪 Ireland1685 – 1753George Berkeley was influenced by "sensationalism". Berkeley raised skeptical questions about "morals and ethics" and created "immaterialism," which is also sometimes called "subjective idealism." Famous quote from George Berkeley:

The truth is the cry of all, but the game of a few

Bloch, Ernesto🇩🇪 Germany1885 – 1977In addition to Adorno, Habermas and Horkheimer, Ernst Bloch was one of the main representatives of the "Frankfurt School". In his book "The Beginning of Hope" he analyzes the meaning of utopia for people's lives today.Bruno, Jordan🇮🇹 Italia1548 – 1600Giordano Bruno was a Dominican friar who announced the infinity of the universe and God as the source of eternal change. He died at the stake in Rome for believing that nature evolved to perfect itself.Calvin, John🇫🇷 France1509 – 1564John Calvin wrote the "Geneva Catechism" and a church order with "strict church discipline."Campanela, Thomas🇮🇹 Italia1568 – 1639Tommaso Campanella was the Italian who wrote the utopia of the "Sunshine State" and spent 27 years in prison during the Inquisition.Capela, Marciano🇩🇿 Algeria350 – 400Martianus Capella was a Neoplatonist and defined the canon of the seven liberal arts. Trivium: grammar, rhetoric, logic. E quadrivium: arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy.Chrysippus🇹🇷 Turkey276 – 204 aCChrysippus created the base of the Stoa with 705 books and formulated the Stoic ideal of freedom of effects; The terms are generalizations of our perception of objects.Cicero🇮🇹 Italia106 – 43 aCCicero was a politician, lawyer and orator and represented the teachings of the Stoics and the academies. He is considered a pioneer of humanism, the doctrine of natural law, and general common sense. He one of the greatest philosophers of Italy.clean🇹🇷 Turkey331 – 251 aCStoic and former boxer; for Cleanthes, virtuous action is only possible through knowledge of reality.Count, Augustus🇫🇷 France1798 – 1857Charity was the supreme duty for Auguste Comte, he developed positivism, a science that is based on tangible facts and their empirical connection. Auguste Comte said

God and man are as one

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Confucius🇨🇳China561 – 479 aCConfucius taught five virtues (love, righteousness, diligence, honesty, reciprocity) and three social obligations (loyalty, filial piety, respect for decency, and morality). Confucius is one of the greatest philosophers of all time.Dante Alighieri🇮🇹 Italia1265 – 1321Dante is one of the most important poets and one of the greatest philosophers of Italy. With "Monarchia", around 1316, he writes a work on an independent state of the church and recognizes that "there are things that cannot be influenced". These things can only be observed. Other important works: Convivio (1306), The Divine Comedy (1307-20), Quaestio (1320)Democritus🇬🇷 Greece460 – 370 aCAs an atomist, he believed that matter (including the soul) is made up of an infinite number of tiny particles (atoms), which are in perpetual motion; Along with Leucippus, Democritus is considered the father of atomic theory.Descartes, Rene🇫🇷 France1596 – 1650In his famous book "Principles of Philosophy" (1641), René Descartes wrote "Cogito, ergo sum" (I think, therefore I am). The French mathematician and scientist saw no connection between the body and the soul, instead replacing it with spirit and nature. With such reasoning he founded, among other things, "rationalism" and "dualism." Other important works: "The passion of the soul" (1649) and "On the town" (1662). One of the greatest philosophers of France.diogenes🇬🇷 Greece399 – 329 aCDiogenes was a Socratic and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy. Diogenes was one of the greatest philosophers, but he probably did not live in a barrel as is widely said. However, he complained to Alexander the Great, telling him to "take your shadow off me" when his view of the sun was blocked.Dionisio🇬🇷 Greecec500 acEverything visible is just a metaphor for the invisible. God is the cause, the principle, the being and the life for Dionysus. Through cleansing (catharsis) and enlightenment (photismos) it is possible to achieve a kind of perfection.Duns Scott, John🏴 SofaScore, United Kingdom 🇬🇧1265 – 1308John Duns Scotus was a high school student and opponent of Thomas Aquinas. He believed that the will takes precedence over reason. The good is determined by the will and, therefore, is superior to the truth.Erasmus of Rotterdam🇳🇱 Netherlands1466 – 1536Erasmus of Rotterdam was a friend of Thomas More and an Augustinian critic of the church, but also an opponent of Martin Luther on the issue of free will. He defended religious tolerance and opposed nationalism and war. Erasmus' main work was "In Praise of Folly" (1509).Epithet🇹🇷 Turkey50 – 138Epictetus was a Stoic philosopher with a great work on morality. famous quote from Epictetus:

Men are not disturbed by things, but by the vision they have of them.

epicurus🇬🇷 Greece341 – 270 aCEpicurus was an atomist who gathered his disciples in a garden where he taught physics, canon (theory of knowledge) and ethics. He claimed that the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain were at the heart of human morality and governed all our actions. One of the greatest philosophers.Eusebius of Caesarea
🇮🇱Israel260 – 337Eusebius of Caesarea (Eusebius Pamphili) is considered the father of church history because of his chronicles.Feuerbach, Luis🇩🇪 Germany1804 – 1872Ludwig Feuerbach is a famous representative of the materialist philosophy. Feuerbach further developed the "dialectical method" together with Karl Marx.Fichte, Johann Gottlieb🇩🇪 Germany1762 – 1814Johann Gottlieb Fichte was a German idealist. Fichte had an impact on the teachings of government, ethics, and law with his theories of "subjective idealism."Fortescue, Juan
🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧1394 – 1476Sir John Fortescue was a judge. In his belief, the king's power was based on public consent rather than the grace of God. Famous quote from John Fortescue:

Better that twenty guilty escape the death penalty than one innocent be convicted and suffer the death penalty.

frankfurt school🇩🇪 Germany1923 onwardsThis group of neo-Marxist philosophers, sociologists and academics that emerged from the “IfS Institute for Social Research” (founded by Felix Weil) originated in Frankfurt. Followers such as Adorno, Bloch, Habermas, Horkheimer, Marcuse, Fromm, and Alfred Schmidt took up "critical theory" and dealt with ideological and socio-critical questions. Main work: "Dialectic of Enlightenment" (1944-47 by Adorno and Horkheimer).galileo, galileo🇮🇹 Italia1564 – 1642Galileo Galilei opposed Aristotelian concepts and instead offered the law of fall as the basis of mechanics which became the basis of the new philosophy. Galileo Galilei was tried for heresy in part for beliefs such as "The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics."Giles of Rome🇮🇹 Italia1243 – 1316Giles of Rome was a prominent theologian and high scholar, he wrote a catalog of 95 false doctrines.Gregory of Nyssa🇹🇷 Turkey335 – 394Gregory of Nyssa was the Father of the Orthodox Church; Nissa taught the infinity of God and the Trinity.Habermas, Jurgen🇩🇪 Germany1929Jürgen Habermas was a philosopher and sociologist, best known for his contributions to "critical theories" and to the moral and social philosophy of the Marxist origins of the "Frankfurt School". Main work: "Theory of Communicative Action".Hartmann, Nicolai🇱🇻 Latvia1882 – 1950Nicolai Hartmann developed a layered structure of being; the ideal being (values, mathematics) is timeless and infinite, the real being (life, soul, spirit) is temporary and individual.Heidegger, Martín🇩🇪 Germany1889 – 1976Martin Heidegger was one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century and the founder of fundamental ontology. Among other things, he saw modern technology as a threat, realizing that it changes our attitudes/opinions towards the world. He helped shape Sartre, Gadamer, Hannah Arendt, and many others. Major work "Being and time" (1927).Hegel, Jorge Federico🇩🇪 Germany1770 – 1831Friedrich Hegel was the main representative of German idealism; thesis-antithesis-synthesis. Hegel believed that we only perceive the world indirectly and our minds only have access to images and perceptions of it (a virtual reality). Hegel's most famous works: Phenomenology of Spirit (1806/07), Science of Logic (1831).heraclitus🇹🇷 Turkey540 – 480 aCHeraclitus believed that all opposites are changing and in constant motion (Greek: “panta rhei” = everything flows). For example, war and peace, day and night, wealth and poverty, etc. For Heraclitus, the dispute was the father of everything (dialectic).Hobbes, Thomas🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧1588 – 1679Thomas Hobbes said that life without a state would be "lonely, poor, instinctive, and short." Waiver of individual freedom for the benefit of the State. Hobbes' main work: Leviathan (1651).Horkheimer, Max🇩🇪 Germany1895 – 1973Max Horkheimer, as a representative of the "Frankfurt School", was guided by Marxist principles together with Adorno, Bloch, Habermas and Marcuse, and supported the student revolt of 1968. His main works: "Dialectic of Enlightenment" (1947, together with Adorno) and "Critique of instrumental reason" (1967).hum, david🏴 SofaScore, United Kingdom 🇬🇧1711 – 1776David Hume in his "epistemology" divided the mind into two classes: sensory impressions and ideas.Husserl, Edmundo🇩🇪 Germany1859 – 1938Edmund Husserl took Brentano's "intentionality" of consciousness and made it the central message of his phenomenology. Truth is a recognizable fact. Major work: "Being and time" (1927).Jaspers, Karl🇩🇪 Germany1883 – 1969Not only a world-renowned philosopher, but also a leading psychiatrist. Karl Jaspers is considered one of the main representatives of German existential philosophy. He is a close friend of Martin Heidegger and Hannah Ahrends. In 1945 he founded the philosophy magazine "Die Wandlung" (The Conversion) and in 1953 he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Heidelberg. His work consists of more than 30 books and several thousand letters and essays.Juan de Salisbury
🇬🇧 United Kingdom1120 – 1180John of Salisbury (also known as Johannes von Salisbury, Little John) was a philosopher, theologian, and scholar. John the Little opposed the extremes of realism and nominalism in favor of common sense, a doctrine of utilitarianism, founded on his admiration for Cicero's literary skepticism. Johannes von Salisbury believed that education was not just intellectual but moral, basically the worldview of Renaissance humanism.Kant, Immanuel🇩🇪 Germany1724 – 1804Immanuel Kant was a highly influential German philosopher whose work "The Critique of Pure Reason" (1781) is considered one of the most important in modern philosophy. Kant conceived the maxim of the “categorical imperative”, a moral principle:

Act only in accordance with that maxim for which at the same time you can want it to become a universal law.

Kierkegaard, Soren🇩🇰 Denmark1813 – 1855For Kierkegaard, considered the founder of existentialism, the spirit and critique of organized religion are at the center of his philosophy, believing that our existence is our own choice. His most important work: “Either / Or” (1843).Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm🇩🇪 Germany1646 – 1716Gottfried Leibniz is famous for his boundless optimism, believing that God created the best possible Universe and that many substances exist in common harmony, as between body and soul. In his 1710 essay "Theodicy" he seeks to explain how the suffering of the world is possible despite the fact that God is omnipotent and good.Locke, Juan🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧1632 – 1704John Locke was an initiator of the "Enlightenment" (explanation of circumstances through reason) and an empiricist, who saw the human mind as a blank slate that was only written throughout life. He one of the greatest philosophers of England.Lawrence, Paul🇩🇪 Germany1915 – 1994Together with Wilhelm Kamlah Lorenzen he was one of the founders of the "Erlangen School" of methodological constructivism. He was also the developer of logical propaedeutics (reasonable discourse preschool) and dialogic logic (game semantics).Luther, Martin🇩🇪 Germany1483 – 1556Initiator of the Reformation. In his 95 Theses (which he nailed to the door of Wittenberg Castle Church in 1517), Martin Luther protested against indulgences, the sale of public office, pilgrimages, and self-punishment, arguing that salvation comes by faith and grace alone. of God. Luther translated the New Testament from Latin to German in just 11 weeks, making it widely accessible (1522).Machiavelli, Nicholas🇮🇹 Italia1469-1527Political philosopher of the modern era; Machiavelli advised state leaders in "Il Principe" ("The Prince", 1513/32) on cunning and deceit.Marcuse, Herbert🇩🇪 Germany1898 – 1979Neo-Marxist supporter and member of the “Frankfurt School”. Herbert Marcuse was a great critic of capitalism.Marx, Carlos🇩🇪 Germany1818-1883The founder of historical materialism and forerunner of communism lived in poverty. "Social being determines consciousness." He wrote his most famous work "Das Kapital" in 1867.Mill, John Stuart🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧1806 – 1873John Stuart Mill was a representative of liberalism. One of John Mill's most famous quotes:

The essence of freedom is to do what you want to do.

More, Thomas🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧1478 – 1535Sir Thomas More, the humanist in "Utopia," called for social reform. Saint Thomas More was convicted of treason and beheaded by Henry VIII. Famous quote from Thomas More:

I don't hurt anyone, I don't say bad to anyone, I don't think ill of anyone, but I wish everyone the best. And if that's not enough to keep a man alive, in good faith, I don't want to live.

Nicholas of Cusa
🇩🇪 Germany1401 – 1464Link between medieval scholasticism and Renaissance mysticism and metaphysics. In his book “De Docta Ignorantia”, Nicholas of Cusa writes about the limits of human knowledge.Nietzsche, Frederick🇩🇪 Germany1844 – 1900His philosophy was directed against Christianity, which he claimed produced a "slave morality". Nietzsche created the "superman" who was mistreated by the Nazis. Perceived reality always has a subjective perspective. A selection of his works: Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1885), The Gay Science (1887), Ecce Homo-How to Become What You Are (1908).Parmenides🇬🇷 Greece515 – 445 aCParmenides was an important Presocrates and founder of the Eleatic philosophical school that had a great influence on Plato. Parmenides was convinced that thinking and being are identical. The only known surviving works of Parmenides are fragments of a poem in which he reasons that reality is one, change is impossible, and existence is timeless and uniform. One of the best known Greek philosophers. Famous quote from Parmenides:

I don't care where I start, because there I will return again.

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Pascual, Blaise🇫🇷 France1623 – 1662Blaise Pascal was a mathematician, logician, theologian, physicist, and philosopher. Pascal assumed that the mind and the senses are wrong and sought a path between dogmatism and rationalism. Pascal died before finishing his book Thoughts: Thoughts on Religion and Other Subjects (1669 posthumously).Paul of Tarsus🇬🇷 Greece5 CA - 67 CCSaint Paul of Tarsus (also known as Saul and the Apostle Paul) insisted that faith in Jesus was all that was needed because the world is, and always will be, under a state of Grace in Jesus, a central belief of all Christian sects. Paul is also credited with the concept that God's moral law (the Ten Commandments) is innately understood by all humans who reach the age of reason.Pico della Mirandola, John🇮🇹 Italia1463 – 1494Giovanni Pico della Mirandola was a Renaissance philosopher who developed 900 theses “On the dignity of man”. The "900 Theses" was the first printed book banned by the Roman Catholic Church. In them Giovanni stated:

Free will is the most characteristic trait of man.

Plato🇬🇷 Greece427 – 347 aCPlato was a student of Socrates, a teacher of Aristotle, and one of the greatest philosophers of all time. Plato saw dialogue as a method of obtaining knowledge and founded transcendental idealism: "Knowledge is reasoned opinion." Plato was very productive writing a total of 36 works, including "Politeia", which includes this famous quote from Plato:

Everything that exists is just a shadow.

Plotinus🇬🇷 Greece205 – 270Plotinus (along with his teacher Ammonius Saccas) founded Neoplatonism, a doctrine that dates back to Plato. The living being and the universe have a soul. The soul of the world stands as the third between being and matter. To become one with the one, it must be purified by sensuality. Plotinus's writings have inspired metaphysicians and other thinkers throughout history.tire porphyry🇬🇷 Greece234 – 304Porfirio de Tiro was a Neoplatonic philosopher, opponent of Christianity and vegetarian. Porfirio edited and published The Enneads. He also wrote a systematic introduction to Aristotle's "Categories" called "Isagoge", a source for the dispute over universals. Famous quote from Porfirio:

Therefore, people should abstain from other animals, just as they should abstain from human beings.

Popper, Charles
🇦🇹 Austria 🇬🇧1902 – 1994Sir Karl Popper represented “critical rationalism”. Popper's main work: "Logik der Forschung" (1934) criticized "logical positivism" and the main representatives of the "Wiener Kreis" (Vienna Circle). Karl Popper's famous phrase:

True ignorance is not the absence of knowledge, but the refusal to acquire it.

Proclus (the successor)🇬🇷 Greece412 – 485Proclus Lycius, after Ammonios Sakkas, was one of the leaders of the Neoplatonic School of Athens. Proclus saw it all and described an elaborate system of fully developed Neoplatonism that has greatly influenced Western philosophy. Proclus was one of the most productive Greek philosophers, two of his most important surviving works are "The Elements of Theology" and "Platonic Theology."Protagoras🇬🇷 Greece490 – 411 aCProtagoras taught relativism and was convinced that truth depends on perspective and is therefore "relative." "Man is (therefore) the measure of all things." Protagoras was a wandering teacher (a sophist). He was ridiculed and criticized by Socrates and Plato, but they did not influence him. Protagoras said:

Judgments are always subjective.

Ptolemy, Claudius🇬🇷 Greece100 – 170Claudio Ptolemy, in addition to being a philosopher, was a skeptical genius, multifaceted, mathematician, geographer, astronomer and astrologer. Ptolemy developed a geocentric worldview (ie, the Earth is at the center of the universe) that was decisive during the Middle Ages. Ptolemy also wrote "Almagest," a lengthy 13-volume work on mathematics and astronomy.Elis Pyrrhus🇬🇷 Greece360 – 270 CAPyrrhus of Elis was the founder of Pyrrhonism and the first skeptical Greek philosopher. Truth cannot be established either by sense perception or by judgment.Pythagoras🇬🇷 Greece570 – 495 aCPythagoras was the founder of Pythagoreanism, which advocated vegetarianism, believing that any being experiencing pain or suffering should not be inflicted with unnecessary pain. In the philosophy of nature of Pythagoras, the harmony of numbers and order was the essence and structure of all things "The essence of the cosmos is number." Pythagoras also recognized that the Earth is spherical. Plato was not only one of the greatest philosophers, but also a famous mathematician. He developed the Pythagorean geometric theorem and the equation for calculating the area of ​​right triangles: a² + b² = c².Bouquet, Peter🇫🇷 France1517 – 1572Petrus Ramus was a Renaissance humanist who developed a "non-Aristotelian" approach to pedagogy, seeking to simplify and order philosophical and school education (ramismo). Ramus, a Huguenot convert, was killed by a Catholic mob during the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre on August 23 and 24, 1572.Rousseau, Jean Jacques🇨🇭 Switzerland (Republic of Geneva)1712 – 1778Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer who saw in society and civilization the reasons for the evils of the time and advocated a return to the virtues of freedom, innocence and nature, to eliminate the inequality that it had arisen among human beings. Rousseau wrote: "Man is born free and yet (through the laws) he is everywhere in chains," which includes spiritual and social chains. Rousseau's most notable work was: "The Social Contract" (Vom Gesellschaftsvertrag oder Prinzipien des Staatsrechtes) published in 1762.Russel, Bertrand🇬🇧 United Kingdom1872 – 1970Bertrand Russell was a logician, mathematician, historian, political activist, social critic, pacifist, liberal, socialist, and philosopher. Russell received aNobel Prize for Literature in 1950. Russell, along with Alfred Whitehead, represented New Realism as a logical-mathematical science and was one of the founders of analytic philosophy. Russell published his views on all major areas of philosophy apart from aesthetics. Bertrand Russell's famous phrase:

It is the preoccupation with possessions, more than anything else, that prevents men from living freely and nobly.

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Sartre, Jean-Paul🇫🇷 France1905 – 1980Jean-Paul Sartre was the creator and main representative of existentialism and was also a playwright, screenwriter, novelist and critic. Existence precedes being "Being is what it is." Man is condemned to freedom. Liability cannot be ruled out. Sartre's main work: "Being and Nothingness" (1943). Sartre was the life partner of Simone de Beauvoir. Famous quote from Jean-Paul Sartre:

My thought is me: that's why I can't stop

Schopenhauer, Arturo🇩🇪 Germany1788 – 1860Arthur Schopenhauer's best-known work, "The World as Will and Representation" (1818, enlarged 1844), depicts the world as the product of a blind and insatiable metaphysical will. Schopenhauer draws on Immanuel Kant's transcendental idealism and was one of the first Western philosophers to absorb some tenets of Indian philosophy, including self-denial and asceticism. Famous quote from Arthur Schopenhauer:

We lost three quarters of ourselves to be like the rest

seneca🇮🇹 Italia4 CA – 65 CCSeneca (Lucius Annaeus Seneca / Seneca the Younger) was a Stoic philosopher, playwright, and statesman during the Roman Imperial period. Seneca's works discuss practical advice and ethical theory as separate but interdependent, and believe that philosophy is a "balm for life's wounds." Seneca considered it important to face one's own mortality and be able to face death. Famous quote from Seneca:

while we teach we learn

Smith, Adam🏴 SofaScore, United Kingdom 🇬🇧1723 – 1790Adam Smith was a renowned economist, author, and moral philosopher. Smith wrote two classic works; "An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations" (1776), which advocated economic and individual liberalism. In "The theory of moral sentiments" (1759). Smith said that "man was a trading animal" and "exchange is a purely human act." Smith believed that self-love, rather than humanity or compassion, is the driving force behind every action.Socrates🇬🇷 Greece470 – 399 aCSocrates was one of the greatest philosophers of all time. He developed the scientific methods of dialectic, induction, and definition. Socrates placed man at the center of his contemplation:

The only true wisdom is knowing that you know nothing.miA life without self-exploration is not worth living.

Socrates developed a critical thinking technique, which became known as the "Socratic method", which involves question-and-answer conversations between individuals to spark ideas and reveal biases based on assumptions.

espeusippos🇬🇷 Greece408 – 339 aCSpeusippus was a student of Plato and his nephew (by his sister Potone) and inherited the Platonic Academy after Plato's death. Speusippus developed ideas on epistemology, ethics, and metaphysics, but rejected Plato's theory of forms.Spinoza, Baruch de🇳🇱 Netherlands1632 – 1677Spinoza was one of the most important and original thinkers of the 17th century involved in most areas of philosophy. Spinoza developed the monistic philosophy from him, which became known as Spinozism. Spinoza's philosophical views and theories are included in his two main works; "Theological-Political Treatise" (1670 anonymous) and "Ethics" (1677 posthumously). Famous quote from Spinoza:

Happiness is a virtue, not its reward

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Thales of Miletus🇬🇷 Greece625 – 547 aCThales of Miletus was a pre-Socratic philosopher, astronomer, mathematician, one of the Seven Sages of Greece, and the father of modern science. Thales tried to rationally explain natural processes and phenomena. Thales believed that water is the primordial material of the world; "Everything consists of water." Thales as an astronomer predicted a solar eclipse and as a mathematician the “Thales Theorem” proves that all angles in a semicircular arc are right angles. Famous phrase from Tales:

The hardest thing in life is knowing yourself.

Theophrastus🇬🇷 Greece371 – 287 aCTheophrastus was the successor to Aristotle in the Peripatetic philosophical school. Theophrastus emphasized natural causation rather than the goal or cause of purpose. Most of his writings have been lost, so his views have been reconstructed from Alexander's later works of Aphrodisias and Simplicio. Famous quote from Theophrastus:

Time is the most valuable thing a man can spend.

Valla, Lawrence🇮🇹 Italia1406 – 1457Lorenzo Valla (Laurentius) was a humanist, rhetorician, educator, and Catholic priest. Valla examined the freedom of the human will and favored a positive evaluation of pleasure. Valla is considered the father of modern textual criticism.Voltaire🇫🇷 France1694 – 1778Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) was a prolific French Enlightenment philosopher, historian, and writer who published more than 2,000 books. He defended freedom of speech and religion, the separation of church and state, and civil liberties. Voltaire was involved with the Lumières and the Philosophes. Voltaire embraced deism and classical liberalism. Voltaire's main work was "Candide" (1759). Voltaire's famous quote:

Man is free when he wants to be.

Whitehead, Alfredo Norte🇬🇧 United Kingdom1861 – 1947Alfred North Whitehead was a logician and mathematician who became one of the leading metaphysicians of the 20th century. With his friend and former student Bertrand Russell, he wrote "Principia Mathematika" (1911-1913), an important three-volume work on logic. In Whitehead's "Process and Reality" (1929), he argues that reality is a dynamically developing organism. Famous quote from Alfred North Whitehead:

The art of progress is to preserve order in the midst of change and to preserve change in the midst of order.

Guillermo de Occam🏴England, United Kingdom 🇬🇧1280 – 1347William of Occam was a late scholastic who represented conceptualism and advocated the separation of church and state. William of Occam was famous for his quotes from minimalist philosophers:

Occam's Razor” – to understand something, remove unnecessary information to get to the truth or the best explanation faster

Wittgenstein, Luis🇦🇹 Austria 🇬🇧1889 – 1951Ludwig Wittgenstein was an Austro-British philosopher primarily in logic, but also in mathematics, mind, and language. Wittgenstein belonged to the wide Viennese circle. The only book by him published during his lifetime was "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus" (1921). Wittgenstein's other manuscripts, including "Philosophical Investigations" (1953), were all published posthumously. Bertrand Russell, Wittgenstein's teacher, said:

Perhaps the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived; passionate, deep, intense and dominant

(Video) History Summarized: Alexander the Great

wolf, christian🇩🇪 Germany1679 – 1754Christian Wolff (Wolfius) was the best known German philosopher between Leibniz and Kant. His comprehensive "Philosophia practica universalis, mathematica metodo conscripta" (1703) was presented in his demonstrative-deductive mathematical method and was arguably the high point of Enlightenment rationality in Germany.Wollstonecraft, María🇬🇧 United Kingdom1759 – 1797Mary Wollstonecraft was a writer, philosopher, and advocate for women's rights. Her unconventional lifestyle outshone her work, but her "Vindication of the Rights of Woman: With Restraints on Political and Moral Subjects" (1792) was an early example of feminist philosophy and established her as a important feminist philosopher. She demanded that women be treated as citizens with the same legal, social and political rights. Quote from Mary Wollstonecraft:

It is justice, not charity, that the world lacks.

Xenophanes of Colophon🇬🇷 Greece570 – 470 aCXenophanes of Colophon was one of the first Greek philosophers. He was also a critic and poet. Fragments of his poetry quoted by later Greek writers are all that remain of his works. Famous quote from Xenophanes:

Mortals consider the gods to be spawned as they are, having clothing like theirs, voice, and form.

Zeno of Elea🇬🇷 Greece490 – 430 aCZeno of Elea was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher. He was a member of the Eleatic monist school founded by Parmenides.
Aristotle said that Zeno of Elea invented the dialectical method (a dialogue between two or more people with different points of view who seek the truth through reasoned argument). Zeno of Elea examined space, time and motion and found 10 paradoxes, which Bertrand Russell described as "immeasurably subtle and deep".Zeno of Citium🇬🇷 Greece336 – 264 aCZeno of Citium was the founder of Stoicism which focused on logic, physics and ethics. Zeno's writings survive only as fragments in quotations from later writers. Famous quote from Zeno de Citium:

Happiness is a good flow of life.

Zhongshu, Dong🇨🇳China179 – 104 aCDong Zhongshu was a Chinese philosopher, writer, and politician who upheld Confucianism as the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state. Dong favored monistic worship of heaven overchinese theory of the 5 elements. Dong wrote three chapters in "Ju Xianliang Duice" in the "Book of Han" (111), and while Dong is often credited with at least partial authorship of the fourth-century "Lush Dew of the Annals of Autumn and Spring" , is probably written by several authors.Zuinglio, Ulrich🇨🇭 Switzerland1484 – 1531Ulrich Zwingli (Huldrych Zwingli) was primarily a church reformer, theologian, and humanist rather than a philosopher. Zwingli was influenced by the writings of Erasmus. Zwingli served as a pastor and considered himself a soldier of Christ and died in the second Kappel war fighting for Zurich. His student Heinrich Bullinger continued his reforms.


Who were the 3 famous philosophers and what were they known for? ›

The Socratic philosophers in ancient Greece were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. These are some of the most well-known of all Greek philosophers. Socrates (470/469–399 B.C.E.) is remembered for his teaching methods and for asking thought-provoking questions.

Who are the three famous big philosophers? ›

Philosophy: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.

Who are the greatest philosophers of the 20th century? ›

The course reconstructs the main ideas of some of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century: Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), Hannah Arendt (1906-1975), Michel Foucault (1926-1984), Jacques Derrida (1930-2004) and Jürgen Habermas (1929).

Who are the 7 philosophers? ›

Descartes, Leibniz, Spinoza, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant: these are the seven philosophers who stand out from the rest in what is known as the `modern' period in philosophy. Their thought defines the mainstream of classical or early modern philosophy, largely responsible for shaping philosophy as we now know it.

Who is the oldest known philosopher? ›

Thales. The earliest person who is cited by ancient sources as a philosopher is Thales, who lived in the city of Miletus in Asia Minor around the late 7th or early 6th century BCE.

Who are the 3 Great Golden Age philosophers? ›

Classical Greece saw a flourishing of philosophers, especially in Athens during its Golden Age. Of these philosophers, the most famous are Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

Who are the three main philosophers of the 18th century? ›

The philosophes (French for 'philosophers') were writers, intellectuals and scientists who shaped the French Enlightenment during the 18th century. The best known philosophes were Baron de Montesquieu, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Denis Diderot.

Do philosophers believe in God? ›

“To be honest, most of philosophy isn't concerned in any direct sense with God or God's existence,” Jensen said. “It is one part of philosophy that we study, but we're not obsessed with it. In no way is it the purpose of philosophy to attack religion.”

Who is the most respected philosopher? ›

Aristotle (384–322 BCE), who follows Socrates and Plato as the third member of the great triumvirate of ancient Greek philosophers, is arguably the most important thinker who ever lived.

Who is the greatest American philosopher? ›

1. William James. William James made important early contributions to both psychology and physiology. Those two fields were where he focused much of his life, but he always threw in some philosophical analysis and would turn increasingly towards philosophy as he aged.

Who are the great modern philosophers? ›

The modern period of philosophy begins in the 17th century. This course is an introduction to some of the key elements in the thought of some of the great philosophers of this period: Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Berkeley, Kant, Marx, and Wittgenstein.

Who is known as King of philosophy? ›

Alexander the Great, as a student of Aristotle, has often been described as a philosopher king.

Who is the father of philosophy? ›

Considered to be the founding father of Western philosophy, Socrates examined all aspects of life in ancient Athens—to his own detriment.

Who are the greatest philosophers of the 19th century? ›

This series introduces you to the work of five of the most influential philosophers of the 19th century: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), Karl Marx (1818-1883), Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) and Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900).

Who is the most original and important philosopher of the 20th century? ›

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951) is by reputation one of the greatest philosophers of the 20th century, and even outside academia his name has become synonymous with philosophical genius. He was the creator of at least two (according to some interpreters, three) philosophies of enormous influence.

Who is the greatest thinker of the 20th century? ›

The three greatest thinkers of the twentieth century were Sigmund Freud, Marshall McLuhan, and Michel Foucault. Have you ever wished that these men had written more -- much more -- than they did?

What are the 8 philosophers? ›

The philosophers on this list were regarded as respectable, high-thinking men.
Their ideas and theories have travelled across countless generations, and are still potent enough to influence minds.
  • Aristotle. Hellenic News of America. ...
  • Plato. ...
  • Chanakya. ...
  • Spinoza. ...
  • Kant. ...
  • Herbert Spencer. ...
  • Bertrand Russell. ...
  • Osho.
Mar 31, 2017

Who were the 4 main philosophers? ›

The Four Philosophers: Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau.

What are the 10 philosophers that define the meaning of self? ›

Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, St. Agustine, Rene Descartes, John Locke, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Sigmund Freud, Gilbert Ryle, Paul Churchland and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. They all have similarities in explaining the tru meaning of self.

Who invented philosophy first? ›

Philosophy as we know it today developed in ancient Greece in the 6th century BC. Thales was the first philosopher. Ancient Greek philosophy reached its peak in the classical period because of philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

Who is the youngest philosopher? ›

He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. He became the youngest person ever to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869 at the age of 24.
Friedrich Nietzsche
BornFriedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche15 October 1844 Röcken, Saxony, Prussia, German Confederation
14 more rows

Who started philosophy? ›

1. Socrates (470–399 BCE): The Athenian philosopher Socrates is credited as the founding father of western philosophy and the Socratic method—a form of questioning that scholars in multiple areas of philosophy use to pinpoint shortcomings in logic or beliefs.

Who are the 5 Greek philosophers? ›

5 of the Most Influential Ancient Greek Philosophers
  • Thales of Miletus (620 BC–546 BC) ...
  • Pythagoras (570 BC–495 BC) ...
  • Socrates (469 BC–399 BC) ...
  • Plato (427 BC–347 BC) ...
  • Aristotle (384 BC–322 BC)
Nov 4, 2021

Who is the man's oldest philosophy? ›

Thales (c. 624-c. 545 B.C.E.), traditionally considered to be the “first philosopher,” proposed a first principle (arche) of the cosmos: water.

Who were the 5 Enlightenment philosophers? ›

The Enlightenment is commonly associated with men whose writing and thinking combined philosophy, politics, economics and science, notably John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Adam Smith, Immanuel Kant, Isaac Newton and Thomas Jefferson.

Who were the 6 Enlightenment philosophers? ›

This powerpoint takes students through the main beliefs of 6 philosophers during the Enlightenment: Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Baron de Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Immanuel Kant. In includes activities that require the two other documents by Voltaire and Kant.

How many philosophers were there? ›

But it is fascinating nonetheless, based as it is on a scholarly database of almost 3,000 philosophers, or people who were referred to as “philosophers” in ancient times.

Who were the major philosophers of the Middle Ages? ›

While Augustine was the dominant philosopher of the early middle ages, two others were influential on some specific philosophical issues, namely, Pseudo-Dionysius and Boethius.

Is Jesus a philosopher? ›

Jesus was a prophetic philosopher, a Jewish thinker among Jewish thinkers in a Hellenized Jewish world, prophetic in his tone and philosophical in his reasoning. One place we see this at work is near the end of the Gospel of Matthew.

Who created the God? ›

We ask, "If all things have a creator, then who created God?" Actually, only created things have a creator, so it's improper to lump God with his creation. God has revealed himself to us in the Bible as having always existed.

What is it called if you believe in God but not religion? ›

The religiously unaffiliated now make up just over one quarter of the U.S. population. While the Nones include agnostics and atheists, most people in this category retain a belief in God or some higher power. Many describe themselves as “spiritual but not religious,” or “SBNR,” as researchers refer to them.

Who is the hardest philosopher to understand? ›

They do not produce delusions in others, without first being subject to them themselves. Hegel, Bertrand Russell observed, is “the hardest to understand of the great philosophers.” Hegel would not have liked very much that Russell had to say about his philosophy in A History of Western Philosophy (1945).

Do philosophers still exist? ›

There are still some genius philosophers out there, of course. Here, we give you ten living people with ideas worth learning about. One of the most cited philosophers of the modern age, Chomsky has written extensively on linguistics, cognitive science, politics, and history.

Who is a philosopher today? ›

Ten Most Influential Philosophers Today
  • Sally Haslanger.
  • Daniel Dennett.
  • Linda Martin Alcoff.
  • Martha Nussbaum.
  • David Chalmers.
  • Jennifer Saul.
  • Noam Chomsky.
  • Jürgen Habermas.
Mar 6, 2020

Who was the last philosopher king? ›

Only the wise philosopher king, Marcus Aurelius, had the wisdom to see that sharing his rule could be a strength instead of a weakness.

Who was the American philosopher kings? ›

Thomas Jefferson: America's Philosopher-King.

Who is mother of philosophy? ›

Leisure is the mother of philosophy. Thomas Hobbes - Forbes Quotes.

Who is the famous philosophy? ›

1. Aristotle. Aristotle, one of the most famous Greek philosophers, was also a polymath who lived in Ancient Greece in 384-322 BC. He was taught by another famous philosopher, Plato.

What are the 3 branches of philosophy? ›

This course examines the main areas of philosophy, which include ethics, epistemology, and metaphysics.

Who is the father of all philosophy? ›

Socrates is considered by many to be the founding father of Western philosophy—as well as one of the most enigmatic figures of ancient history.

Who is the wisest philosopher? ›

His reputation as a philosopher, literally meaning 'a lover of wisdom', soon spread all over Athens and beyond. When told that the Oracle of Delphi had revealed to one of his friends that Socrates was the wisest man in Athens, he responded not by boasting or celebrating, but by trying to prove the Oracle wrong.

Who was greatest Plato or Aristotle? ›

Though many more of Plato's works survived the centuries, Aristotle's contributions have arguably been more influential, particularly when it comes to science and logical reasoning. While both philosophers' works are considered less theoretically valuable in modern times, they continue to have great historical value.

Who is the most famous philosophy? ›

Top 10 Philosophers
  • Aristotle. Aristotle, one of the most famous Greek philosophers, was also a polymath who lived in Ancient Greece in 384-322 BC. ...
  • Lao-Tzu. ...
  • John Locke. ...
  • Karl Marx. ...
  • Confucius. ...
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson. ...
  • Immanuel Kant. ...
  • Epicurus.

Who is the oldest philosophy? ›

The Milesians. Thales (c. 624-c. 545 B.C.E.), traditionally considered to be the “first philosopher,” proposed a first principle (arche) of the cosmos: water.

Who is the God of philosopher? ›

Summary. The God that philosophers in the early modern period intended to refer to was the God of the Judeo-Christian tradition, which is to say, the being who created the world, who spoke to Moses from the burning bush, and who, through Jesus Christ, saved mankind from the consequences of sin.

Who founded philosophy? ›

Philosophy as we know it today developed in ancient Greece in the 6th century BC. Thales was the first philosopher. Ancient Greek philosophy reached its peak in the classical period because of philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

What is the best life philosophy? ›

Life Philosophy Quotes
  • “Be the reason someone smiles. ...
  • “Don't Just. ...
  • “Make improvements, not excuses. ...
  • “Do not fear failure but rather fear not trying.” ...
  • “Life has no remote....get up and change it yourself!” ...
  • “If you believe very strongly in something, stand up and fight for it.”

Who are the five Greek philosophers? ›

5 of the Most Influential Ancient Greek Philosophers
  • Thales of Miletus (620 BC–546 BC) ...
  • Pythagoras (570 BC–495 BC) ...
  • Socrates (469 BC–399 BC) ...
  • Plato (427 BC–347 BC) ...
  • Aristotle (384 BC–322 BC)
Nov 4, 2021

Who came first Socrates or Plato? ›

Ancient Greek philosophy is dominated by three very famous men: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. All three of these lived in Athens for most of their lives, and they knew each other. Socrates came first, and Plato was his student, around 400 BC. Another well known philosopher from this time was Diogenes.

How did Aristotle died? ›

Aristotle's Death and Legacy

After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C., anti-Macedonian sentiment again forced Aristotle to flee Athens. He died a little north of the city in 322, of a digestive complaint. He asked to be buried next to his wife, who had died some years before.


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